Global Advisory Panel on Corporate Governance and Risk Management of Blood Services in Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies


Brochure Template: Donate Blood
Insert Logo 1 hereInsert Logo 2 hereWhy should I donate blood?There is no substitute for bloodBlood has a short expiry Regular donation ensures blood will be available in an emergency situation, i.e. a road traffic accidentGIVING IS IN YOUR BLOOD.DONATE TODAY. A single blood donation can save up to 3 lives.What should I expect?One blood donation of [INSERT]mL is quick and painless , and donors receive a refreshment at the end of donation. For further information call [insert telephone]#GivingIsInYourBloodYour blood will be used to save the lives of: Children and pregnant women, mothers losing blood during childbirth, road accident victims, cancer patients, major surgery, anemia and thalassemia EXAMPLEInsert Logo 1 hereInsert Logo 2 hereWhy should I donate blood?There is no substitute for bloodBlood has a short expiry Regular donation ensures blood will be available in an emergency situation, i.e. a road traffic accidentGIVING IS IN YOUR BLOOD.DONATE TODAY. A single blood donation can save up to 3 lives.What should I expect?One blood donation of [INSERT]mL is quick and painless, and donors receive a refreshment at the end of donation. For further information call [insert telephone]#GivingIsInYourBloodYour blood will be used to save the lives of: Children and pregnant women, mothers losing blood during childbirth, road accident victims, cancer patients, major surgery, anemia and thalassemia Brochure: Instructions for useSize: 9.9 x 20.1cm (or fit 3 to A4 at ~ 19.2 x 9.7cm)Purpose: General information for potential donorsUpdates required (update all yellow text):Contact if you require further assistanceNote.The use of these templates, and all associated documents referenced within, is at the user's own risk and the Global Advisory Panel (GAP) on Corporate Governance and Risk Management of Blood Services in Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies disclaims any liability for its use. It is at the user's sole discretion to adapt these to a more or less stringent format, subject to the user's own operational context and requirements, and it is strongly advised that comprehensive stakeholder collaboration between parties is conducted to validate the document is relevant and effective for local processes. In providing a copy of these templates, and all associated documents referenced within, GAP does not undertake to provide updates nor warrant its fitness for any purpose other than as a representation / sample of an operational agreement undertaken within the National Society's operational context. GAP disclaims any liability arising out of the use of these documents, and all associated documents referenced within, or any document derived from these materials.DOWNLOAD REQUIRED FONT(S): Univers LT Std 57 Cn,Univers LT 67 CondensedBold. Check information is accurate and relevant to local systems, blood service standards and operational requirementsConsider updating the brochure with who requires the most blood in your country (Reference: Your blood will be used to save the lives of:)Insert average blood donation volume (Reference: One blood donation of [INSERT]mL)Update contact details & add logosBefore using these resources, please consider which materials are relevant and appropriate for your National Society's level of involvement in blood programs (Levels A, B or C). It is important to understand the risk management issues around appropriate use of Red Cross / Red Crescent logos and branding in government blood centres, including any reputational risks surrounding this.
Posters Template: Donate Blood
POSTERS: GENERALBECOME A VOLUNTARYBLOOD DONOR AND SAVE LIVESGIVING IS IN YOUR BLOODDONATE NOW#GivingIsInYourBloodCall: 13 14 16 / Visit: 145 Example Logo 1 hereInsert Logo 2 hereEXAMPLEGIVING IS IN YOUR BLOODDONATE NOWBecome a voluntary donor and save lives#GivingIsInYourBloodInsert event / blood drive or mobile information here, for example:Blood ServicePlaceDateTimePhone | FacebookInsert Logo 1 hereInsert Logo 2 hereGIVING IS IN YOUR BLOODDONATE NOWBecome a voluntary donor and save lives#GivingIsInYourBloodInsert event / blood drive or mobile information here, for example:Blood ServicePlaceDateTimePhone | FacebookInsert Logo 1 hereInsert Logo 2 hereGIVING IS IN YOUR BLOODDONATE NOWBecome a voluntary donor and save lives#GivingIsInYourBloodBLOOD DRIVE: Forrest University21st July 20181pm - 3pm145 Example Street, Room 4ETelephone: 1300 xx xx to make an appointment Logo 1 hereInsert Logo 2 hereEXAMPLEPOSTERS: EVENTSGIVING IS IN YOUR BLOODDONATE NOWBecome a voluntary donor and save lives#GivingIsInYourBloodCall: xxx xxxFacebook.comInsert addressInsert Logo 1 hereInsert Logo 2 hereDID YOU KNOW? Blood has a short expiry which is why regular donation is important BECOME A VOLUNTARYBLOOD DONOR AND SAVE LIVESGIVING IS IN YOUR BLOODDONATE NOW#GivingIsInYourBloodCall: xxx xxxFacebook.comInsert addressInsert Logo 1 hereInsert Logo 2 herePosters: Instructions for useSize: As desired (A4 or A3 / other)Purpose: General information for potential donors, events / mobile / blood drive postersUpdates required (update all yellow text):Before using these resources, please consider which materials are relevant and appropriate for your National Society's level of involvement in blood programs (Levels A, B or C). It is important to understand the risk management issues around appropriate use of Red Cross / Red Crescent logos and branding in government blood centres, including any reputational risks surrounding this. Contact if you require further assistance.Posters: General Public and EventsInstructions for use:DOWNLOAD REQUIRED FONT(S): Univers LT Std 57 Cn,Univers LT 67 CondensedBold. Insert logo(s) as requiredUpdate contact details (ie. telephone, address, social media etc)For event posters, insert blood collection mobile / blood drive / event details (this may even be an educational event / presentation)Print in desired sizeNote.The use of these templates, and all associated documents referenced within, is at the user's own risk and the Global Advisory Panel (GAP) on Corporate Governance and Risk Management of Blood Services in Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies disclaims any liability for its use. It is at the user's sole discretion to adapt these to a more or less stringent format, subject to the user's own operational context and requirements, and it is strongly advised that comprehensive stakeholder collaboration between parties is conducted to validate the document is relevant and effective for local processes. In providing a copy of these templates, and all associated documents referenced within, GAP does not undertake to provide updates nor warrant its fitness for any purpose other than as a representation / sample of an operational agreement undertaken within the National Society's operational context. GAP disclaims any liability arising out of the use of these documents, and all associated documents referenced within, or any document derived from these materials.
Framework of an MOU - Appendix 3 GAP Manual
Appendix 3: Framework of a Memorandum of UnderstandingWhen a National Society agrees to undertake the provision of part (Level B) or all (Level A) of a nationalblood programme on behalf of the government or health authority, GAP recommends that this issupported by a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) or service agreement between the two parties. AMoU provides clarity on respective roles and responsibilities and facilitates a cooperative workingrelationship based on expectations that have been agreed to by both parties. It can also be used todocument and reaffirm the governments responsibility to assist the National Society in managing itsblood programme risks both financially and with regards to assurance.MoUs are established for a clearly specified period (such as 1-3 years) however they should bereviewed annually. It is in the interest of both parties that a formal contract be negotiated each year(perhaps as an addendum to the MoU) that specifies the volume/number of products to be provided andthe funding that will be provided by, or funding arrangements that are supported by, the government.MoU formats may vary but generally they will include the following:A title which describes clearly the parties and the purpose of the MoU, for example: Memorandum ofUnderstanding (MoU) between [the Country government or health authority] and [the NationalSociety/blood service] for the [Specific programme of work e.g. implementation of the national bloodprogramme/provision of the blood donor recruitment programme]I.Mission/ObjectiveA preamble which includes a brief description of the missions of both the National Society/bloodservice and the government, and the area which the partnership will promote e.g. the adequatesupply of safe blood and blood products to patients, through a national blood programme based onvoluntary blood donation.II.Purpose and ScopeA description of the intended results that both parties hope to achieve in forming the partnership,and the area(s) that the specific activities listed later will cover.Delegations could be covered in this section. If a National Society is delegated as the nationalblood service, the National Society should seek an assurance that it will have autonomy andindependence in the technical management of the programme. Funding arrangements and theprovision of assurance could also be covered here.III. ResponsibilitiesA list of the specific responsibilities and/or tasks of each party, and any joint obligations, that havebeen agreed as part of the negotiation process including annual operations and budget plans withagreed Key Performance Indicators. Below is a list of government and National Societyresponsibilities that could be considered for inclusion in a MoU for a Level A blood programme.Government obligations: The implementation of a clear blood policywhich spells out the agreed roles and functionsof all parties, including the National Society, andestablishes VNRBD as the basis for the nationalblood programmeGovernment obligations (cont.):58National Society/blood service obligations: Comply strictly with all laws, regulations andguidelines issued by government Provide the population with access to the safestpossible blood and blood products, equitablyand appropriatelyNational Society/blood service obligations (cont.): The provision of an appropriate legislativeframework for the blood programme andregulatory oversight The provision of sufficient resources to enablethe National Society to undertake the task at therequired level of quality and competencewithout compromising standards or diminishingits own resources The provision of an adequate level ofprotection/assurance to the National Society forundertaking the blood programme on its behalf,particularly regarding incidents of no faulttransfusion transmitted infection. Recruit VNRB donors, provide appropriatedonor care, and collect, test, process anddistribute blood and blood components Retaincompetentstaff,includinganappropriatelyskilleddirectorwiththeresponsibility and authority for planning,coordinatingandmanagingthebloodprogramme Provide a technical, financial and administrativestructuretoensuretheappropriatemanagement of the blood programme Maintain an appropriate quality managementsystem for its activities and productionprocesses Submit agreed financial and quality reports tothe government in a timely mannerA number of the examples above could also apply for Level B National Societys entering intopartnership with a blood centre. Additional suggestions are included below:Government/Blood Centre obligations: The implementation of appropriate donor caresystems and of quality standards in thecollection, testing and processing anddistribution of blood and blood components toensure the population has access to the safestpossible blood and blood products, equitablyand appropriately The provision of professional expertise for thedevelopment ofthe public awarenessprogramme, in liaison with those responsible fordonor recruitment programme (includingRC/RC) Assistance in the orientation and training ofRC/RC volunteers Management of a dedicated budget for theblood service allocating appropriate resourcesto those responsible for donor recruitment(including RC/RC)59NationalSociety/blooddonorrecruitmentprogramme obligations: Work in partnership with Blood Centre to ensurean adequate supply of safe blood Recruit and build a team to implement the blooddonorrecruitmentandmanagementprogramme, implementing wherever possiblethe IFRCs standard toolkit Making a Differencerecruiting voluntary , non-remunerated blooddonors Develop and implement a continuous nationalawareness programme to heighten theimportance of blood donation Develop and manage education, publicity andpromotion activities to promote, recruit andretain blood donors to the level as agreed withthe blood service. Develop recognition programmes for regularblood donors, in partnership with the bloodservice, including World Blood Donor Day on 14June. Motivate and enlist the support of thecommunity to organize and host blood mobilesessions and to coordinate the activities for theblood mobile drives with the blood service. Recruit, train and manage a pool of volunteersto maximize the impact of the donor recruitmentprogrammeIV. Terms of UnderstandingDescribes the terms of length for the MoU and the effective date from which the agreement will start(usually when it is signed). A review period, usually annually, should be included to ensure that theMoU is meeting its purpose and that any necessary revisions can be made. The option to extendthe MoU upon mutual agreement could also be written into this section.The process for termination of the MoU and for resolving disputes should be clarified. Aconfidentiality clause could also be incorporated to ensure that information and documents receivedor acquired are treated as strictly confidential.The MoU should end with the signatures of the duly authorised representatives of both the governmentand National Society and the date upon which the document was signed. The signatures of at least twowitnesses, one from each party, should also be included.GAP may be able to assist in providing example MoUs for National Societies to consider. Pleasecontact the GAP Secretariat or the IFRC, if further information is required.60
Español - GAP VNRBD Newsletter - June 2018
Checklist Level B
Level B: Systematic recruitment of voluntary blood donorsSome National Societies support their domestic blood programme and blood services by recruitingblood donors and providing access to blood donation centres. These societies act in partnership with ablood service, actively promote non-remunerated donation, and motivate donors through information andrecruitment campaigns. National Societies at Level B need to enter into a dialogue with the bloodservices to which they recruit donors to ensure that the blood service has the appropriate standards indonor care and quality assurance.National SocietyVNRBDRecruitmentprogrammechecklistFundamentals Adherence to the IFRCs blood policy and the minimal conditions described inthe GAP Self-assessment (Level B). Ensuring that the blood service the National Society recruits blood donors tomeets local regulatory requirements and/or WHO and international standardsrecommended for national blood programmes (see Level A information on pages8-11). The blood donor recruitment programme is based on VNRBD. Roles and responsibilities between the National Society and government havebeen clarified and there is a documented service agreement for VNRBDrecruitment activities. A long-term and sustainable source of revenue for the donor recruitmentprogramme has been secured. The donor recruitment programme is evaluated regularly to assess whether a) itis meeting demands or b) it is grossly exceeding requirements. The donor is treated ethically and his or her privacy and confidentiality areassured. The IFRC toolkit Making a differenceRecruiting VNRBD is used.Blood donor recruitment programme management There is a clear vision, mission and strategic plan for the donor recruitmentprogramme. Performance goals and key performance indicators have been established tomonitor progress against the strategic plan. The programme is under the direction of a professional director with authorityover the necessary resources, who is part of the National Societys seniormanagement team. The director organizes, manages, trains, monitors and evaluates the staff,volunteers and procedures involved in blood donor recruitment and retention. Staff are continually trained in all aspects of blood donor recruitment andretention.Donor care and counselling A donor register and records are maintained. The National Societys donor recruitment and deferral practices reflect nationaldonor selection and deferral criteria. Counselling for donors, especially those that have been deferred, is provided by13the National Society or blood service, as appropriate. Good customer service and donor care is the responsibility of all staff members. Staff performance is subject to monitoring and evaluation.Promotion A community education programme develops positive attitudes to VNRBD. Donor populations at low risk of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) aretargeted. The worth of blood donations and blood donors is recognized. The National Society works with clinicians (through education, awareness, etc.)to promote VNRBD.Sustainability There is a risk management framework in place to identify, prioritize andmanage risks relevant to the local environment. A clear disaster preparedness and contingency plan is in place.Level of RiskMedium (refer to Chapter 4, Appendix 2, and the GAP Self-assessment Level B).Key Resources Promoting Safe and Sustainable Blood Systems Policy (draft). Geneva, IFRC,2011 (see Appendix 1). GAP Self-assessment Level B. GAP, current version. Towards 100 per cent voluntary blood donation: A global framework for action.Geneva, WHO and IFRC, 2010. Making a differenceRecruiting voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors.Toolkit, Geneva, IFRC, 2008. Developing a Voluntary Blood Donor Programme for Blood Safety (DONOR).Geneva, WHO and IFRC. Aide-Mmoire: Blood Safety. Geneva, WHO, 2002. Aide-Mmoire: Safe Blood Components. Geneva, WHO, 2005. New blood for the world, DVD and leaflet. Geneva, IFRC, 2009. Proceedings of the international colloquia on the recruitment of VNRBD.Making the most of World Blood Donor Day. WHO/IFRC/FIODS/ISBT, note: References relevant to the content in each manual chapter are listedunder the Resources heading found at the end of most sections.14
IFRC Blood Policy
GB/11.1/1Original: EnglishINTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS ANDRED CRESCENT SOCIETIES24th Session of the Governing Board,Geneva, Switzerland, 28-30 September 2011Item 11.1 of the agendaPolicy on Promoting Safe and Sustainable National Blood SystemsIt is recommended that:The Governing Board,approves the draft policy on Promoting Safe and Sustainable National BloodSystems and refers it to the upcoming General Assembly for final decisionExecutive summary.The attached version of the revised policy includes modifications to the text submitted to theGoverning Board in December 2010. More specifically there are some substance additions tothe version proposed by the Advisory Body on Health And Sustainable Development - especiallyin the list of points describing an integrated approach to blood safety (just below thedescription of Level B programmes) - and there is clarification of roles and responsibilitiesrelated to risk management at global and other levels. The key modifcations related to riskmanagement are to be found in the section on Specific Responsibilities arising out of thispolicy. In summary, it is underlined that the primary responsibility for managing safety andrisks of blood programmes lies with national governments. The remainder of the text remainslargely largely unchanged in substance over the version presented to the Governing Board inDecember last year.What is the issueThe need for a new blood policy was in part triggered by a comprehensive report submitted bythe Global Advisory Panel on Blood (GAP) on the Review of risks associated with bloodservice delivery for National Societies engaged in blood programmes to the Governing Board inSeptember 2009. While there was subsequently relatively quickly agreement on the maintechnical substance, it took a while longer to find consensus around the definition of roles andresponisbilities related to the management of the various risks associated with different forms ofengagement of the membership in blood related activities.The relation to previous governance decision(s)Following the December 2010 Governing Board decision asking the Secretariat to conductfurther consultations with National Societies on the draft blood policy as well as the April 2011decision supporting the proposal of the Secretary General to continue consultations on the bloodpolicy specifically in the area of risk management, a final draft is now presented to theGoverning Board for endorsement and for transmission to the General Assembly for finaldecision.The relation to existing policiesThis policy replaces the 1999 policy on Quality Provision of Blood ServicesThe relation to strategic objectivesRed Cross Red Crescent work on blood issues is in particular covered by strategic aim 2 ofStrategy 2020.How does this decision solve the issueThe new policy provides clarity on the scope of Red Cross Red Crescent blood related activitiesas well as roles and responsibilities related to management of associated risksResearch, analysis and consultations carried outVarious key stakeholders have been consulted, including the Advisory Body for Health and SustainableDevelopment, GAP (Global Advisory Panel on Blood), the Risk and Audit Comittee and senior managersand leaders of Natioanl Societies. In addition the Secretariat took into consideration pro bono workof a British law firm.Any other relevant information: to be refered in annexesNot applicableResource implicationsThere are at this stage no specific resource implications for the Secretariat. The membership atalrge is being constinously asked to support theRecommended optionsThe Secretariat orally updated the Governing Board at its April 2011 session on its perspectiveon possible legal liabilities and the various options of managing risk at the global level as wellas options for the future legal structure of GAP. There are separate terms of reference for GAP,and discussions and work are being carried out towards establishing GAP as a separate legalentity.Any potential risks to the FederationRed Cross and Red Crescent engagement in blood activities will always come with reputationaland other risks. Adherence to the policy will signifcantly contibute to effective management ofrisks.Implementation and Monitoring and how implementation will be monitored and reportedto the Governing BoardThe Secretariat is a member of the GAP Board, and will update the Governing Board through theSecretary General on material issues and risks that are brought to its attention in relation toimplementation of the blood policy.POLICYPromoting Safe and Sustainable National Blood SystemsIntroduction:Blood safety is a critical underpinning for safe blood transfusion and health systems. People in allcountries have a right to expect that the blood and blood products supplied to them are gathered,produced and provided in a safe and sustainable way that supports their communities and theirhealth systems.The International Federation recognises that health security is a fundamental and indispensableprerequisite to global, national and individual development1 and it supports the advancement ofglobal health security by promoting voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD), andadvocating for the safe provision of blood and products2.While the World Health Organisation (WHO) recognises that it is the responsibility of governments toensure a safe and adequate supply of blood3, Red Cross/Red Crescent Societies in many countries,as auxiliaries to their governments, play an important role in promoting safe and sustainable bloodprogrammes. National Society activities range from the provision of the national blood service, tosystematic recruitment of voluntary blood donors, to promotion of blood donation and advocacy forVNRBD, for example annual participation in World Blood Donor Day.Scope of policyThis policy sets out the International Federation and member National Societies position onadvancing health security through safe and sustainable blood systems.Importance of blood servicesSustainable and quality blood services play a critical role in the health of any society, and in terms ofdisaster preparedness the existence of a quality blood service is critical. While the availability ofblood could be a major concern in the event of a disaster, the safety is also always of paramountconcern to any emergency/disaster response. Blood is used for a multitude of life saving purposesincluding: assisting patients undergoing surgery; treating diseases including anaemia and malaria;caring for patients on chemotherapy; supporting women with complications during childbirth(postpartum haemorrhage) and patients on Antiretroviral (ARV) treatments. The unavailability of safeblood can lead to serious health consequences such as death from haemorrhage or thetransmission of life threatening infections HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, syphilis and other infections.There should be preparedness plans to provide rapid response to emergency situations and forpost-disaster reconstruction of blood transfusion services.The availability of safe blood contributes directly to three of the United Nations MillenniumDevelopment Goals:4. the reduction of child mortality;5. the improvement of maternal health; and1Health Policy adopted at the 15 session of the General Assembly of the IFRC, Seoul, November 2005.Strategy 2020, p 15, IFRC3Blood Safety, Aide-Memoire for National Blood programme, WHO, 200226. combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.It is recognised that a sufficient supply of safe blood and blood components based on voluntary nonremunerated blood donation (VNRBD), and the security of that supply, are important national goalsto prevent blood shortages and meet the transfusion needs of the patient population4.VNRBD is a critical component in ensuring a safe and sustainable blood supply that meets theneeds of all recipients. VNRBD was enshrined as a fundamental principle of blood service when the1975 World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution called for member states to promote thedevelopment of national blood services based upon voluntary non-remunerated donation of blood5.Patients must have equitable access to safe transfusion on the basis of their clinical needs, and thesafety of the donor and patient must be considered paramount. The International Federation and itsmember National Societies promote equity, access, quality and safety of blood and bloodcomponents so that citizens can have confidence in the security and integrity of their blood system.While the benefits of blood transfusion are widely acknowledged, there are also some risks inherentin the blood transfusion process, including accidental exposure to transfusion transmitted infectionssuch as HIV. To secure the safety of the blood supply, blood services must ensure that appropriatedonor screening and quality management processes are in place, and that they remain vigilantagainst new threats to the blood supply.Characteristics of well-functioning RC/RC blood programmesWhile it is the responsibility of a countrys government to ensure an adequate and safe blood supply,many National Societies play an important role in supporting their government to achieve thatobjective. National Societies may be involved in blood-related activities at three levels:A: Full blood services (collecting, testing, processing, distribution)B: Systematic recruitment of blood donors to a blood serviceC: Promotion and advocacy of blood donationThese levels are reflected in the figure below.Figure 1:Red Cross/Red Crescent role in blood activitiesblood service delivery,donor re-motivation viaexcellent donor serviceFULL BLOOD SERVICE (INCLUDING BLOOD COLLECTION)Level AStrategic campaigns,accessibility of blood centresRECRUITMENTLevel Bimpact of broad based communityeducation/awareness programmesMOTIVATION AND ADVOCACYLevel C45WHA resolution 63.12.WHA resolution 28.72 This principle was reasserted again by the WHA in 2005 (WHA58.13) and 2010 (WHA28.72)Each level of National Society involvement in blood services is characterised by differentrequirements regarding capacity and risk management. While Level A requires the most resourcesand has the highest level of risk, a well run National Society blood service can contribute enormouslyto the health and well-being of the community in which it is based. However, all National Societiescan contribute towards the development of a safe and sustainable blood system through theadvocacy and promotion of VNRBD.For a full description of the characteristics of each level, please refer to the Global Advisory Panel onCorporate Governance and Risk Management of Blood Services in Red Cross and Red CrescentSocieties (GAP) blood manual Development of Safe and Sustainable Blood Programmes. Asummary of the main characteristics of a well-functioning level A or B blood programme is providedbelow.For both Levels A and B: Systems are in place to ensure that the health and well-being of the donor and recipient areprotected There is national blood policy in place which reflects WHO recommendations, includingVNRBD, and it is supported by a legislative framework The blood programme is integrated as part of a national health policy and plan The allocation of roles and responsibilities between the Government , the blood programme,and the National Society reflect the overall responsibility of the Government to ensure anadequate and safe blood supply and are formally documented in a service agreement Long-term and sustainable funding allows the blood programme to:o meet operational and regulatory requirements with regards to facilities, supplies,equipment and trained staff and volunteers; ando implement appropriate donor care and risk management systems leading to high quality,safe and effective blood products. The blood programme is nationally coordinated to ensure uniformity of standards and costefficiency Donor selection criteria are in place to identify low risk donors and counselling is provided incases of deferral There is a risk management framework in place, to identify, prioritise and manage risksAt Level A: The National Society has secured government protection/indemnity and/or insurance cover forits blood service activities, including clinical advice. The National Society should assure that adequate external assessments are conductedregularly to ensure that the Blood services operate under the necessary quality assuranceprogramme and adheres to a national regulatory framework based upon internationallyrecognised standards. The blood service is involved in collaborations and partnerships to ensure a safe and adequateblood supply and appropriate product use.At Level B: The blood service to which the National Society recruits donors operates under a qualityassurance programme and adheres to a national regulatory framework based uponinternationally recognised standards.There are agreements in place whereby the roles and responsibilities of the National Societiesand the Blood Service are clearly defined.It is therefore important that National Societies consider carefully the level of blood activity which ismost appropriate for their engagement. The global burden of disease due to unsafe blood can beeliminated or substantially reduced through an integrated approach to blood safety, requiring,The establishment of a nationally coordinated blood serviceFormalization of government commitment and support.Contribute where appropriate to the Development of National blood policy and plans.Advocacy of necessary legislation/regulation for the Blood Transfusion Service .Establishment of nationwide quality systems, including guidelines, standard operatingprocedures, accurate records, monitoring and evaluation aligning to Government policy.Collection of blood only from vnrbd from low risk populationsHaemovigilance system for monitoring, reporting and investigating adverse events.Trained staff and continuing professional development and upgrading for latest technologyas a prerequisite.Ensure efficient and good laboratory practices in screening for transfusion transmissibleinfections, blood grouping, compatibility testing, blood component production, storage andtransportationReduction of unnecessary transfusions through effective clinical use of bloodBut a National Society needs to consider carefully all aspects of a sustainable and qualityprogramme, and if it is contemplating a commitment to undertake activities at Level A the NationalSociety:1. Should have a clear mandate from their government to do so;2. Should have the capacity to adhere to regulatory requirements and implement appropriateblood safety measures;3. is able to manage any legal liabilities, possibly by considering whether a separate legal entityis required to separate the assets of the National Society from the blood business.Independence with its own director, board of management and budget may also lead toincreased public trust and confidence, crucial to a successful national blood programme.Framework of support to RC/RC blood programmesTogether with WHO the IFRC is committed to the achievement of 100 per cent voluntary blooddonation, in keeping with our Fundamental Principles, and we have a long history of collaboration inthe area of blood safety and availability. The strength of the partnership lies in its complimentary andsynergistic approach at national as well as global level. Three key milestones have marked ourstrategic collaboration, each providing a global framework of support:(1) the designation of Blood Safety as the theme of WHOs World Health Day 7 April 2000,supported by IFRC(2) the foundation and establishment of World Blood Donor Day in 2004-5 which is nowcelebrated each year on 14 June to raise awareness of the importance of blood donationand recognize the contribution of voluntary non-remunerated blood donors in saving livesand improving health.(3) the 2009-10 release of the WHO/IFRC Global Framework for action-towards 100 per centvoluntary blood donationThe International Federations main toolkit, designed to assist key stakeholders in best practice, indonor recruitment and advocacy for 100 per cent vnrbd is the package Making aDifferencerecruiting voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors. This is a self-help manualempowering personnel in the field to motivate, recruit and retain vnrbd and to phase-out anydependence on family/replacement donors.National Societies and the International Federation have created an experts group (GAP) togenerally assist and advise National Societies on the governance and risk management issuesrelevant to blood services, as resources allow. GAPs main tool in working with National Societies isthe Self-assessment, a questionnaire that: enables National Societies to identify potential problem areas where their blood programmeactivities may be exposing them to risk; and offers strategies for improving corporate governance and risk management.Meanwhile, as ongoing support to sister societies and in accordance with the spirit of theInternational Federation, the sharing of best practice between National Societies is encouraged inorder to maintain and expand on the competitive advantage which the International Federation andits member National Societies have in this specialized field of health care.It is clearly acknowledged and understood that each National Society is fully responsible for its ownblood activities. The support provided by either the International Federation, GAP or assistingNational Societies does not in any way dilute or transmit this responsibility.Specific Responsibilities arising out of this policy:The International Federation, GAP and National Societies engage to:support and advocate the principle of voluntary, non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD)advocate a balanced decision-making approach to blood safety that addresses both evidencebased considerations and the precautionary principlepromote and uphold high ethical standards, integrity and accountability consistent with theCode of Ethics for Blood Donation and Transfusion of the International Society of BloodTransfusion, as adopted by the International Conference of Red Cross and Red CrescentSocieties, 1981, and supported by the World Health OrganizationNational Societies have a responsibility to:work to ensure their Governments accept their responsibility to ensure a safe and adequate bloodsupply within their jurisdictionsidentify their role in the overall strategy of blood service delivery in their country in accordancewith their capacity, technical know-how, available resources, local priorities and in liaison withgovernmentpromote safe, sustainable and equitable practices in the development and administration ofblood programmesensure their blood programme has an adequate governance structure with a well-definedsystem for delegation of authority and the aspiration of national self-sufficiency, including ensuring adequate blood and bloodproducts to meet domestic health needsundertake Humanitarian Diplomacy as necessary to seek government action to minimise risk inblood services and to help ensure that Government alerts the public to any reasonably preventableinadequacy in blood service delivery which places them at riskimplement the GAP Self-assessment and adhere to the Development of Safe and SustainableNational Blood Programmes Manual, which may necessitate a more detailed analysis,assessment and development of an exit strategyrespect the confidentiality and privacy of all information relating to blood donors and blooddonationadminister any blood programmes in compliance with this position; inform all staff, volunteersand blood sector partners participating in blood programmes of this positionwhere practical, provide support to other National Societies and blood services in achieving asafe and sustainable blood system in ways that enable self-empowerment and long-termsustainabilitytake steps in consultation with GAP and other partners to ensure that appropriate riskmanagement measures are implemented; this includes ensuring that its senior managementand governing leaders are alerted to any material risks and that appropriate action issubsequently takenensure that all blood programmes comply with this policyThe International Federation has a responsibility to:focus on the promotion of voluntary blood donor recruitment and to liaise and work in closecollaboration with GAP, WHO and other partners in implementating the WHO/IFRC GlobalFramework for action-towards 100 per cent voluntary blood donationshare knowledge and exchange information with GAP at a strategic, regional and countrylevel.ensure this policy is reviewed after five yearswork with the GAP membership to help ensure necessary GAP resourcingkeep through the International Federation Secretary General International FederationGovernance appropriately informed of major material risks for the International Federation itbecomes aware ofThe GAP has a responsibility to:share knowledge and provide advice to National Societies on governance and management ofrisk associated with blood programmes, as resources allowensure any lessons learned from the implementation of the GAP manual Development of Safeand Sustainable National Blood Programmes are incorporated into an update of the manual atsame time as the policy reviewinform both the International Federation Secretariat and the concerned National Societies of majormaterial risks for the International Federation discovered through the GAP National Society selfassessment program in blood service delivery and any other GAP workReview and Reference:This policy was drawn up in 2010 and it is designed to replace the previously established policy onQuality Provision in Blood Services. IFRC will ensure this policy is reviewed after five years, withany proposed amendments to be submitted to the Federation for approval. The review is to beinitiated no later than 30 Dec 2014.This policy is submitted to Governing Board Dec 2010 for its approval and submission to the GeneralAssembly in Nov 2011.Further Reference Texts:Decision 34, 8th session of the General Assembly, Budapest, 25-28 Nov 1991.Voluntary nonremunerated blood donors are persons who give blood, plasma or other blood components of theirown free will and receive no payment for it, either in the form of cash, or in kind which could beconsidered a substitute for money. This includes time off work, other than reasonably needed for thedonation and travel. Small tokens, refreshments and reimbursement of direct travel costs arecompatible with voluntary, non-remunerated donationCode of Ethics for Blood Donation and Transfusion. International Society of Blood Transfusion,General Assembly, Montreal, 1980 and XXIVth International Conference of the Red Cross, Manila,1981.Code of Ethics for Blood Donation and Transfusion. International Society of Blood Transfusion,General Assembly, 12 July 2000; amended by the ISBT General Assembly, 5 September 2006.Decision 36, Blood Quality Programme. Seville, Spain: 11th Session of the General Assembly,November 1997.Melbourne Declaration 2009, arising from WHO/IFRC global consultation on 100 per cent vnrbdwhereby participants (more than 65 experts in transfusion medicine, policy makers, government andnon-government representatives from 38 countries across WHO/IFRC regions) agreed, inter alia, towork in collaboration in international efforts to promote safe and sustainable vnrbd programmes thatfoster community engagement and benefit the recipients of blood and blood products.Decision, World Health Assembly, 2010, Availability, safety and quality of blood products(WHA63:12)
GAP Structure
Self-assessment - English
GAP Self-AssessmentDesigned for National Societies active in blood services(Level A)2017Please refer to the GAP Self-Assessment guidelines for background and instructionsCountry:Name of Blood Service:Name of person completingthe survey:Position:Date completed:Once completed,please email to (preferred)or fax to +61 8 6213 5949Contents PagePart A - Blood service activities overviewPart B - Key issuesKey Issue 1: Minimum conditionsKey Issue 2: Essential organisational requirementsKey Issue 3: Protection against claims for damagesKey Issue 4: Support for recipients of infected bloodKey Issue 5: Safety versus costKey Issue 6: FundingKey Issue 7: Education on blood risks and consequencesKey Issue 8: Management skillsKey Issue 9: FractionationKey Issue 10: Administration of blood and blood productsKey Issue 11: Other ActivitiesRecommended next stepsFinal commentsList of AcronymsAABBCoEGAPIFRCMMRMoUNPNSNSBSSAVNRBDWHOAmerican Association of Blood BanksCouncil of Europe (European Committee (Partial Agreement) on Blood Transfusion (CDP-TS))Global Advisory Panel on Corporate Governance and Risk Management ofBlood Services in Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesInternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesMajor Material RiskMemorandum of UnderstandingNot ProvidedNational SocietyNational Society Blood ServiceGAP Self-assessmentVoluntary non-remunerated blood donationWorld Health OrganisationPart A - Blood Service Activities OverviewPlease provide a brief overview of your blood service, with the most recent data available to you. This sectionwill help set an overall picture of the blood activities in your National Society, and assist in evaluating progressover time.What percentage (%) of the total national blood supply does your National Society BloodService provide?If your National Society Blood Service provides less than 100% of the national blood supply, please list the topfive providers of blood in your country with the approximate % share of overall supply.Name% Share1. your National Society Blood Service centrally co-ordinated at anational level?YesNoYesNoPlease provide comments below:Are there any National Society Blood Service operations that arecontrolled at a state or provincial level?Please provide comments below:Please provide the number of fixed collection sites operated by your National SocietyBlood Service:Please provide the percentage (%) of total blood collections by your National SocietyBlood Service that are undertaken at mobile venues/camps?Please provide the total number of collections by your National SocietyBlood Service annually of:whole bloodNumber ofunitsVolume per unit (mls)apheresis plasmaapheresis plateletsother (please specify)Is the amount of plasma collected for fractionation in your countryenough to meet the requirements?Please provide comments below:YesNoDoes the National Society or Blood Service receive:YesNoa) Technical assistance for VNRBD or blood service activities from an internationalpartner (e.g. US CDC or AABB)?b) Financial support for VNRBD or blood service activities (e.g. The Global Fund to FightHIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria)?If YES, please give details:Are you aware of any other organisations in your country that use theRed Cross/Red Crescent emblem, that carry out blood services?YesNoYesNoIf YES, please give details:Would you be willing to share some of your local success stories withother Red Cross/Red Crescent Blood Services?When returning your completed questionnaire to the GAP Secretariat, could you please provide a copy ofyour:- governance structure- organisation chartThis will assist GAP with the evaluation of the survey results and will help us to understand the local operatingcontext.Part B - Key IssuesKey Issue 1 - Minimum ConditionsExplanatory Note:When undertaking a blood programme, GAP recommends that a NSBS should meet a number of minimum conditions to ensure the delivery of a safe andadequate blood supply. These include the clarification of the roles and responsibilities of all key stakeholders in the blood program (including government),implementation of a national policy of 100% VNRBD and ensuring sufficient funding and supplies to meet regulatory requirements and operational needs.Are the roles and responsibilities clearly defined and described between theblood service and:1.1YesPartially(Please givedetails)NoUnknownNotApplicablethe national governmentthe local governments (if applicable)the National SocietyHospitals/clinicsPlease give details:If the roles and responsibilities are clearly defined and described, pleaseindicate how they are defined:1.1.1MemorandumofUnderstandingContract orother writtenagreementOther (pleaseNot Applicablespecify below)the national governmentthe local governments (if applicable)the National SocietyHospitals/clinicsOther (please specify):If the roles and responsibilities are clearly defined and described, are theseactively adhered to by:1.1.2YesPartially(Please givedetails)NoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNotApplicablethe national governmentthe local governments (if applicable)the National SocietyHospitals/clinicsPlease give details:Does your countrys government have a national policy of securing supply ofsafe blood through voluntary and non-remunerated blood donation(VNRBD)?1.21.3YesPartially or InProgress(please givedetails)Please give details:Approximately what percentage (%) of the blood supply from your NationalSociety Blood Service is collected from VNRBD donors?(Please note: VNRBD does not include replacement donations from familyor friends)%Is your blood service a separate legal entity from the National Society? ( the National Society and Blood Service have legal protections in place tolimit the transfer of liability between both parties) givedetails)If you answered NO to Q1.4, please describe what protections are in placeto prevent shared liability?1.5YesNoPlease give details:If you answered NO to Q1.5, please provide details of the consequences ofthis to the Blood Service's ability to meet minimum technical standards andguidelines.(e.g. is it impairing the Blood Service's ability to ensure appropriate supply oftesting reagents?)Does the Blood Service have sufficient of the following resources to meetregulatory requirements/minimum standards?1.6No, slightNo, significantshortageshortageYes, sufficient(*Please(*Pleaseprovide further provide furtherinformation)information)FacilitiesSuppliesEquipment1.6.1Trained staff/volunteersIf you answered "No, slight shortage" or "No, significant shortage" toany of the resources in Q1.6, this could indicate a potential Major MaterialRisk (MMR), so please provide further detailed information regarding theshortage and whether plans are in place to improve this.Are you able to assure privacy and confidentiality of donor information?1.7NoPlease give details:Does your National Society Blood Service have a long-term, sufficient andsustainable source of revenue/funding?1.5.1YesYesNoPlease give details:Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:UnknownNotApplicableKey Issue 2: Essential Organisational RequirementsExplanatory Note:The implementation of blood programmes is a complex undertaking with inherent risks which requires specialist technical and financialknowledge and expertise. To ensure the appropriate level of guidance is received and the significant risks that face all blood programmes canbe reduced, GAP recommends that all NS blood services are governed separately by a professional, specialist blood service Board withdelegated responsibility for strategic direction and having the specific skills required to manage the blood programme and oversee operationalperformance. It is particularly useful for board members to have bio- technical, medical/scientific management, economic/financial, politicaland legal skills and knowledge. Any governance structure should be guided by systems of delegation that clearly describe the role of theBoard, and the authority and accountability between the NS Council and the blood service Board.2.1Does the National Society have a separate organisational managementPartiallystructure to manage the blood service including a separate board of governance(PleaseYeswith delegated responsibility for the blood programmegive- strategic planning;details)- operational management; and- delegated financial authority.Please give details:If you answered YES to Q 2.1, does the National Society have a well-definedsystem for delegation, providing clarity on authority and accountability betweenthe:2.1.1YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)NoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNoUnknownNational Society and blood service boardsThe blood service board and blood service managementPlease give details:If you answered YES to Q 2.1, does your National Society Blood Service havethe skills and knowledge to implement and manage change, maintain strict rolesand responsibilities and otherwise perform its responsibilities as per Q2.1?2.1.2Is your National Society Blood Service based on a nationwide organisationalmodel?2.2Partially(PleaseYesgivedetails)Please give details:YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)Please give details:Does the blood service have contingency plans or systems in place to maintainblood service delivery in the event of disaster? (e.g. a business continuity planor disaster preparedness procedures in place for the blood program)YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)2.3Please give details:Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:Key Issue 3: Protection against claims for damagesExplanatory Note:A National Society Blood Service should have a clear definition of their relationship with the government and the governments role in protecting theNational Society against claims and damages. No matter how good a blood services quality management and safety procedures, there is always thepossibility of an incident of no fault transfusion transmitted infection. It is important, therefore, that the Blood Service has in place insurance orindemnity to protect it from potential liabilities should this occur, particularly in countries where litigation is a possible consequence. Blood Servicesshould also ensure to keep secure and accurate records.Does the government provide legal and/or financial protection to the blood service forundertaking its activities?3.1YesPartially(Please givedetails)NoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNotApplicablePlease give details:Has a separate corporate structure been established between the National Societyand the blood service to enable protection of National Society funds from damagesrelating to blood service activities?Yes (PleasePartially(Please givegivedetails)details)3.2Please give details:Does the blood service operate according to international standards in bloodprogrammes (e.g. WHO, AABB, CoE)?(If YES or PARTIALLY, please indicate which standards)3.3PartiallyPlease give details:Does the blood service operate according to national or country specific minimumstandards?(If YES or PARTIALLY, please indicate which standards)3.4YesPartiallyPlease give details:Where the blood service does NOT operate according to international or nationalstandards in blood programme delivery, is the reason documented and accepted bygovernment?3.5YesPartially(Please givedetails)Please give details:Is your blood service accredited to a relevant blood standard? (e.g. AABB, cGMP, EUdirectives, GMP, WHO, AfSBT or AABB stepwise accreditation).If YES, please indicate certification, level and date of last inspection/audit.3.6Yes*When returning your completed Self-assessment questionnaire, please alsoprovide a copy of the blood standard being used.YesPartially/InProgressPlease give details:Does the blood service retain donor and donation records according to a definedpolicy?3.7Partially(Please givedetails)NoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNoUnknownPlease give details:Does the blood service maintain insurance cover against the following potentialliabilities?3.8YesYesPartially(Please givedetails)property losspublic liabilityblood and blood products liabilitydirectors' and officers' liabilityprofessional indemnityinternal frauddonor injurymalicious product tamperPlease give details:3.9Does the blood service obtain regular professional advice on the levels and type ofinsurance cover?Does the blood service enjoy either commercial or government indemnity protectionfrom blood-borne disease liabilities?3.10Yes, at leastannuallyYesYes,periodicallyPartially(Please givedetails)Please give details:Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:NotApplicableKey Issue 4: Support for Recipients of Infected BloodExplanatory Note:While the blood service cannot be held responsible for the risk of infection which is inherent in blood products, it is appropriate forNational Society blood services to provide support and compassion to affected transfusion recipients. This is currently an area of riskfor almost all NS blood services as the provision of this type of support is an important aspect in sustaining the reputation of the RedCross/Crescent as a humanitarian organisation.Does the blood service or the health department provide support torecipients of infected blood?(Please select all mechanisms of support that are provided)YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)- financial compensation- professional psychological support4.1- medical support- social support (e.g. in discussions with health insurance providers)- other (please specify):Please give details:If the blood service or the health department do not provide support torecipients of infected blood, which agency provides this support (if any)?4.2Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:NoUnknownNotApplicableKey Issue 5: Safety Versus CostExplanatory Note:A significant role of a National Society blood service is to balance safety, cost and availability of blood products. Although there is acontinued move towards improving the safety of blood, it is also important to ensure that a known small risk is not being replaced by anunknown and potentially greater risk. Efforts to increase safety can have an impact on the availability of blood products overall.Ensuring a continued awareness of emerging threats and the education of government agencies about new safety measures areimportant functions of the blood service.Does the blood service conduct a cost/benefit analysis of new safetyenhancement proposals? (e.g. Nucleic Acid Testing)YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)NoUnknownNoUnknownNoUnknownNoUnknown5.1Please give details:Does the blood service actively advise government agencies on theimportance of adequate funding for new blood safety initiatives and theconsequences of not funding them?YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)5.2Please give details:Does the blood service have systems in place to monitor emerging threatsto the safety of the blood supply (e.g. regional disease surveillance)?YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)5.3Please give details:Does the blood service have systems in place to ensure the followingaspects of blood transfusion safety are being met (to ensure optimalpatient outcome):5.4YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)The correct blood is being provided.The right built-in mechanism for lookback.Please give details:Does the blood service aim to influence hospitals/clinics in the appropriateuse of blood components including storage, handling and minimisingwaste?YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)NoUnknownNoUnknownNoUnknown5.5Please give details:5.5.1If you answered YES or PARTIALLY to Q5.5, please indicate how youinfluence hospitals/clinics.If you answered YES or PARTIALLY to Q5.5, what percentage (%) of5.5.2 major hospitals that use blood components from your blood service do youhave a written agreement in place with? percentage (%) of major hospitals that use blood components fromyour blood service have active multi-disciplinary transfusion committees?Does the blood service participate in multi-disciplinary transfusioncommittees?Please indicate the national proportion (%) of hospitals/clinics:Public hospitalsPrivate hospitalsNot-for-profit hospitalsClinicsArmed forcesOther (please specify):Does the blood service participate with relevant health authorities in thedevelopment of national standards?%Yes (all)YesYes(some)%%%%%%Partially(Pleasegivedetails)5.8Please give details:Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:Key Issue 6: FundingExplanatory Note:GAP advocates that NS should ensure, as a priority, that their blood service activities have sustainable and transparent financialarrangements. Sufficient and long-term funding should be in place and reviewed by the National Society before commencing orremaining in a blood programme. This is best secured through either cost recovery or government funding, although in some areasuse of public donations is supported. Transfer of funds between the National Society and blood service should be in the context of anappropriate service level agreement.6.16.2What percentage (%) of your total blood service budget comes from:Please give % for each:government%hospitals%cost recovery charge to hospitals/clinics%internal funding activities%your National Society%other National Societies%NGOs (non-governmental organisations) & international funds%public/private health insurance system%Other (please specify):%Does the blood service ensure that 'for profit' organisations or suppliersPartiallyhave no equity share or management control in the blood programme?(PleaseYesNogive(For example: Ensuring that suppliers of equipment/reagents do notdetails)influence blood service decision making)UnknownPlease give details:Does the blood service manage potential conflict of interest for:Yes6.3Partially(Pleasegivedetails)NoUnknownboard memberssenior staffvolunteersmajor suppliersPlease give details:A potential conflict of interest is a situation in which a person is in a position topersonally benefit from decisions made in their official capacity. Some examplesof mechanisms to manage conflict of interest are:a) board members with a conflict of interest are required to abstain from decisionmaking where a conflict exists; orb) policies are implemented that ensure suppliers are not influencing bloodservice independence on decision making.Is a formal agreement in place to manage National Society access toblood service funds?6.4Yes - NS cannot access fundsYes - formal agreement allows NS toaccess funds where appropriateNoUnknownOther : (please give details below)Not ApplicablePlease give details:Are blood service funds quarantined for use by the blood service only?Yes6.5Partially(Pleasegivedetails)Please give details:NoUnknownNotApplicableDoes the National Society provide funding to the blood service?6.6Yes(Pleasegivedetails)Partially(Pleasegivedetails)NoUnknownNotApplicableNoUnknownNotApplicablePlease give details:Do the National Society and blood service have separate accountingsystems?YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)6.7Please give details:Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:Key Issue 7: Education on Blood Risks and ConsequencesExplanatory Note:While NS blood services may not be directly responsible for transfusing blood products to patients, GAP recommends that theyprovide a duty of care to patients by ensuring that they are made aware of the inherent risks of blood transfusion and that hospitalsand clinicians using the blood services products practice appropriate use of blood and effective patient consent protocols. Theprovision of appropriate education on the risks of blood transfusion should extend to the general public, NS, government, clinicalcolleges and blood service staff.Do patients have to provide written informed consent prior totransfusion?YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)NoUnknownNoUnknownNoUnknownNoUnknown7.1Please give details:Has the blood service developed and implemented strategies aimed atimproving public education in relation to the safety of the blood supplyand risks of blood transfusion?7.2Examples may include:- school programmes- media (including social media)- information on a website- brochures/leaflets- informal networks- donor education- placing representatives on appropriate decision making bodies- other (please specify):Does the blood service provide education on the risks of bloodtransfusion to clinicians and other stakeholders, including:7.3YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)Please give details:YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)National SocietyGovernmentHospitals & clinical collegesBlood service staffParticipation on hospital transfusion committeesOther (please specify):Please give details:Does the blood service conduct regular campaigns to educate the publicon the need for regular blood donations?Yes(Pleasegivedetails)Partially(Pleasegivedetails)7.4Please give details:Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:NotApplicableKey Issue 8: Management SkillsExplanatory Note:In order to achieve and maintain a good standard of management skills, GAP recommends that a NS blood service is coordinated andguided by a national strategic plan, with a clear vision, mission and objectives. The strategic plan should be supported by tools suchas performance goals and key performance indicators which allow the blood service to measure progress towards an achievement ofthese goals.Does the blood service have the following in place?Yes8.1Partially(Pleasegivedetails)NoUnknownNoUnknownNoUnknowna clear visiona clear missiona strategic planstrategic objectivesPlease give details:Does the blood service have key performance goals and indicators?(e.g. % decrease in staff injury time, % decrease in product wastage)YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)8.2Please give details:Does the blood service have training programmes in place to maintainand develop management and leadership skills?8.3YesPartially(Pleasegivedetails)Please give details:Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:Key Issue 9: FractionationExplanatory Note:It is not desirable for Red Cross/Red Crescent to commence fractionating activities unless the size of the operations in that country makes itviable and the blood service can meet international standards of GMP and quality assurance. GAP recognises that in some developingcountries, involvement in fractionation may be the only way that plasma derived products can be sourced, and the NS may considerfractionation, provided that appropriate government authority and support is secured. If plasma is to be discarded, donors should beadvised.If NS do want to fractionate or outsource to other fractionators, it is recommended that prior approval from appropriate governmentauthorities is obtained on both the product manufacturing and marketing processes. GAP also recommends the blood service reviews itsindemnity and insurance provisions to ensure that it is adequately covered for involvement in this additional activity and to minimise theimpact of the associated potential risk exposure. The NSs position is that a policy of national self-sufficiency is a matter for that countrysgovernment.Does the blood service collect plasma for fractionation into plasma derived medicininal products and send it toa plasma fractionator?9.1YesNoYesNoYesNoYesNoYesNoPlease give details:If NO, does the blood service plan to be involved in this activity in the future?9.1.1 Please give details:Does the blood service operate a plasma fractionation facility or directly perform fractionation (proteinpurification)?9.2Please give details:If YES, is the blood service insured/indemnified for these activities?9.2.1 Please give details:If NO, does the blood service plan to be involved in this activity in the future?9.2.2 Please give details:Does the blood service sell plasma derived medicinal products (derived from plasma fractionation)?9.3YesNoYesNoYesNoYesNoYesNoPlease give details:If NO, does the blood service plan to be involved in this activity in the future?9.3.1 Please give details:Does the blood service distribute plasma derived medicinal products to hospitals/clinics/patients?Please give details:9.4If NO, does the blood service plan to be involved in this activity in the future?Please give details:9.4.1If the blood service is involved in plasma fractionation activities, are donors informed of this?Please give details:9.5Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:Key Issue 10: Administration of Blood and Blood ProductsExplanatory Note:The involvement of a National Society blood service in any activities relating to the administration or therapeutic collection of bloodproducts, including compatibility testing and clinical advice, carries with it an increased exposure to potential risk for the blood service andNational Society.Does the blood service transfuse or administer blood products (e.g. blood, blood components, plasma derivedproducts, or cell therapies)?10.1YesNoYesNoYesNoYesNoYesNoPlease give details:If YES,- Is there official approval from government for these activities?- is the blood service/National Society insured/indemnified for these activities?10.1.1 Please give details:If YES, are there systems in place to ensure:- The right product is being transfused or administered to the correct patient?- Traceability (for patient lookback)10.1.2Please give details:If NO, does the blood service plan to be involved in these activities in the near future?10.1.3 Please give details:Does the blood service undertake therapeutic collection of whole blood or plasma?10.2Please give details:Does the blood service provide compatibility testing services / cross matching services for hospitals?10.3NoYesNoPlease give details:Does the blood service provide clinical advice or approval for blood and blood product transfusion oradministration (e.g. does the blood service review and approve requests for patient access to plasma derivedproducts such as IVIg or FVIII)?10.4YesPlease give details:Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:Key Issue 11: Other ActivitiesExplanatory Note:The extent and level of activities that the blood service is involved in will directly affect their potential risk exposure, as well as the risk for theNational Society. With the development of therapies and technologies, new areas of interest are emerging for some NSBS; howeverinvolvement these activities may also carry with them an inherent increase in associated risk which should be considered.Does the blood service undertake activities involving cells and tissues? (cells and tissue involvement includesthe collection, storage, testing, distribution and/or administration of cells and tissues)11.1YesNoYesNoYesNoYesNoYesNoPlease give details:If YES,- Is there official approval from government for these activities?- is the blood service/National Society insured/indemnified for these activities?11.1.1 Please give details:If NO, does the blood service plan to be involved in activities involving cells and tissues in the future?11.1.2Please give details:Does the blood service/National Society undertake consumables manufacture (e.g. blood bags/test kits)?Please give details:11.2If YES,- Is there official approval from government for these activities?- Is the blood service/National Society insured/indemnified for these activities?11.2.1 Please give details:If NO, does the blood service plan to be involved in activities consumables manufacture in the future?11.2.2 Please give details:Please feel free to provide other comments or further information to clarify your responses to this section:YesNoRecommended Next StepsRecommended Next StepsThe Self-assessment is intended to enable National Societies and their blood services to identify issuesthat require further attention. Each question in the SA describes a condition which, if not met, canrepresent a risk to the blood service and its National Society. A plan to address each of the unmetconditions - beginning with those under key issue one - should significantly reduce the level of risk to theblood service and its National Society.To assist the blood service in addressing its identified risks, GAP will provide it with an individualSelf-assessment feedback report with risk management recommendations.In the interim, GAP has suggested various possible 'next steps' for the blood service's considerationbelow:Governance and Management Establish a working group within the National Society and/or blood service to review the servicescurrent governance and management structure, and to prepare a strategic plan. Consider obtaining specialist assistance or advice on governance and management issues fromother National Societies/blood services, or by engaging a specialist external advisor. The working group or advisor could consider whether: the current structure provides sufficient oversight, and clarity of responsibility the management of the blood service and that of the National Society should be separated the blood service should be established as a separate legal entity from the National Society a structure involving a supervisory board of directors (with strategic oversight functions), a chiefexecutive (responsible for day-to-day management, reporting to the board), and a seniormanagement team (reporting to the chief executive) would be workableLegal Issues and Risk Management Identify the legislative and regulatory basis for the blood services operations. Assess whethercurrent government laws and regulations: accurately state the relationship between the blood service and government authorities adequately regulate the services activities provide the blood service with any protection or indemnification from legal claims Consider whether legislative changes are necessary, and how best such changes can beachieved. Consider advocacy with the government, and appropriate public health authorities, to gain theirsupport for such proposals. Establish a risk management team within the blood service, to conduct an assessment of theservices activities and to prepare policies for identifying, minimizing and eliminating risks.Funding and Insurance Review sources of funding and potential revenue streams. Assess whether current serviceagreements (if any) with the National Society and public bodies are sufficient, or require changes. Seek advice about the availability and cost of comprehensive insurance for the service and itsstaff.Policies and Standards Conduct an operational audit to assess the extent of compliance with international bloodprogramme delivery standards. Identify steps for improving compliance. Review operational policies (for example, policies for the recruitment and training of staff,document preservation, patient informed consent, public education, media relations, and so on). Systematically review and prioritize the key issues and key points from the Self-assessment, andincorporate them into policy and planning materials. Repeat the Self-assessment periodically in order to review progress.Final Comments and FeedbackPlease feel free to provide GAP with any further comments or information, for example:- Further clarification on any answers provided in the questionnaire;- Is there anything that your blood service is concerned about or you need further information on?- Feedback on the process of completing the Self-assessment (suggestions for changes or other comments)THANK YOUMany thanks for your participation in the Self-assessment. If you have any other information or feedback that you would like to provide, pleaseaddress it by email expect to receive your individual feedback report upon completion of the Self-assessment process within your region.
GAP Annual Report 2016
GAPANNUAL REPORT2016Good Governance, safe bloodThe Global Advisory Panel onCorporateGovernance and Risk Management of BloodServices in Red Cross and Red CrescentSocieties (GAP) is a global network of Red Crossand Red Crescent Blood Services with specificexpertise inrisk management and corporategovernance of blood programmes.ContentsMessage from the President22016 Highlights 3GAP is an independent Association accordingtoSwiss Law and is affiliated with theRed Cross/Red Crescent Movement.Governance4Global Mapping8The organisations purpose is to:Self-assessment14 Coordinate assistance to NationalSociety blood services inpost-emergency situationsincluding blood program recovery;Country Support Programmes17 Influence global blood policyinconjunction with partners;Global Networks 26 Provide advocacy and support to theRed Cross/Red Crescent Movement andNational Society blood services onissuesaffecting blood programmes.Financial Report29History33 Provide corporate governance and riskmanagement advice to National Societyblood services; Promote knowledge sharing, networkingand partnership among and betweenNational Society blood services andexternal partners; Develop and provide tools, guidelines andpriority country assistance to NationalSociety blood services most in need;Our VisionAll Red Cross/Red Crescent blood programmes will be safe, well governedandself-sustainable, based on the principle of voluntary non remuneratedblooddonation for the benefit of patients and to safeguard blood donors.Our MissionGAP will support Red Cross/Red Crescent blood services in risk management andcorporate governance of blood programmes and promote goodpractices andknowledge exchange.OVERVIEW | 1Message fromthe President2016 HighlightsProfessor Philippe Vandekerckhove, MD, PhDGAP PresidentThe last year, again, saw a lot of media attention for artificial blood.Onemaywonder why, in light of this news, Red Cross/Red Crescentnationalsocieties worldwide are still involved in promoting blood donationand/or blood banking activities?Indeed, whereas medicine and the press pay a lot of attentionto new medical and scientific breakthroughs, not muchattention is given to the fact that millions of lives are savedbythe daily act of blood transfusion.Besides the fact that the concept of artificial blood in itsdifferent forms has been around the corner for the past40years or so, it is unlikely that this technology will becomemature and safe in the very near future, and even should it beso, it will probably remain very expensive. The reasons for this,as is the case with certain plasma derived bulk componentssuch as albumin, is that it is just cheaper to obtain it fromhuman donors than to make it artificially in the laboratory.At a time when all health care systems are struggling tokeep up with finding funding for new technologies and drugsthat become available, this is an increasingly importantfactor. Maximizing cost effectiveness has now supersededmaximizing effectiveness in most health care systems. Manyof us, working in the health care systems, have becomefamiliar with the term cost per qaly (quality adjusted life year).For reasons of both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness,human donors will continue to remain an indispensable assetto satisfy the needs of health care systems worldwide foradequate supplies of safe blood and blood derived products.It is precisely for this reason that Red Cross/Red Crescentnational societies worldwide are involved in this activity.Since voluntary non-remunerated blood donation forms anessential part of the safety of the donated blood supply, andsince working with volunteers and organizing their efforts isthe core business of any Red Cross/Red Crescent nationalsociety, it is all but evident that the Red Cross is, and remainsinvolved.Global Mapping increased visibilityof National Societyinvolvement in bloodprogrammesExpanded Self-assessment programmeconducted in IndiaEnabled andsuccessfully facilitatedthe first meeting ofrepresentatives fromRed Cross blood banksthroughout IndiaReview of Self-assessment questionnairetoaddress new andemerging risksMaximised the potentialfunding support for theNepal Red Cross bloodservice recovery andfurther developmentprogram by PartnerNational SocietiesContinued prioritycountry support to theBangladesh Red Crescentand Honduran Red CrossBlood ServicesIn-country visit toIndonesia to discussprogress of the PalangMerah Indonesian BloodServiceIncreased GAP supportto National Societies involuntary blood donationWelcomed new GAPmember representativefor the Australian RedCross Blood ServiceFacilitation of theIFRC/Korean RedCross voluntarynon-remunerated blooddonation (VNRBD)workshop in Seoul byGAP member Prof EilatShinar (MDA Israel)Participation in the IFRCHealth & WASH meetingfor the Asia Pacific regionin Kuala LumpurGAP plays a role in supporting this collective effort throughdifferent means;By providing a global network with specialized expertisein blood program management to advise and supportNational Society Blood Services and IFRC on issuesaffecting blood programmes;By developing the tools, guidelines and examplematerials for blood services to ensure effectivecorporate governance and risk management of theirblood programBy providing targeted support and technical assistanceprogrammes to those blood services most in need;By facilitating blood programme knowledge transfer,networking and partnership on a global, regional orcountry based level;By coordinating assistance, in post-emergencysituations for blood programme recovery.As part of the Red Cross / Red Crescent Movement, GAPsthirteen member blood services collectively supply blood andblood products made from over 20.8 million donations ofwhole blood and apheresis products a year. Additionally, manymore National Societies motivate and recruit voluntary blooddonors and supply blood to support those in need.We at GAP strive to provide a strong network of supportfor National Society Blood Services to enable the ongoingprovision of safe blood and good governance.I hope you enjoy reading this annual report.The GAP global mapping book that will be published in thefollowing year, will document the huge commitment of RedCross/Red Crescent national societies worldwide. It is aneffort that has been going on for decades, and is likely tolastfor many decades more.Professor Philippe Vandekerckhove, MD, PhDGAP President2| GAP Annual Report 20162016 Highlights|3GovernanceThe GAP Association structure consists of GAP member National Societiesand their representatives, Regional Coordinators, theGAP Executive Board,a Secretariat and a permanent observer who representsthe InternationalFederation of Red Cross/Red Crescent(IFRC).New GAP Member Representativein 2016GAP member representative for Australia,Ms Jennifer Williams, resigned from theAustralian Red Cross Blood Service inMarch 2016, and consequently vacatedher position as a GAP Executive Boardmember. GAP would like to thank MsWilliams for her valuable contributiontoGAP activities over the last 7 years.Members pay an annual membership fee and arerepresented by the head of their National Societybloodservice or a nominated representative.GAP MembershipGAP Membership is open to National Society bloodservices which meet the criteria for membership,includingthe effective operation of a full Level A bloodservice (a blood service which collects blood from donorsand mayalso test, process and distribute blood collected).To be a GAP member, a National Society blood servicemusthave achieved, or be aspiring to achieve 100% voluntarynon-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD) andagree toregularly complete the GAP Self-assessment questionnaire.Collectively, GAP members provide advice on corporategovernance and risk management of blood services and,at an individual level, contribute their expertise andknowledge to support a range of GAP programsdesignedtoassist National Society blood services.GAP was pleased to welcome MsShellyPark, new Chief Executive Officer of theAustralian Red Cross Blood Service, asthe new GAP member representativeforAustralia in 2016.GAP is supported by a small secretariat which is basedinPerth, Australia and provided by the Australian RedCrossBlood Service.GAPs current membership is 13 National Society bloodservices from around the globe.GERMANYProf Erhard SeifriedGerman Red CrossBlood Transfusion CentreFINLANDDr Satu PastilaFinnish Red CrossBlood ServiceJAPANBELGIUMProf PhilippeVandekerckhoveBelgian Red CrossBlood ServiceDr Kenji TadokoroJapanese Red CrossBlood ServiceHONG KONGAUSTRIAAMERICADr Cheuk Kwong LeeHong Kong Red CrossBlood Transfusion ServiceProf Wolfgang MayrAustrian Red CrossBlood ServiceMr Chris HroudaAmerican Red CrossBiomedical ServicesINDIADr Veer BhushanIndian RedCross SocietyHONDURASDr Elizabeth VinelliHonduran Red CrossNational Blood Centre4| GAP Annual Report 2016THAILANDDr Ubonwon CharoonruangritThai Red Cross NationalBlood CentreSWITZERLANDDr Rudolf SchwabeTransfusion SwissRed CrossISRAELProf Eilat ShinarMagen DavidAdom - IsraelAUSTRALIAMs Shelly ParkAustralian RedCross Blood ServiceGovernance|5GAP Executive BoardGAP Regional CoordinatorsIn 2016, the GAP Regional Coordinators were:GAP is led by an Executive Board, the members of whichplay a vital role in governance and decision makingfor theorganisations activities and strategic direction.Boardmembers are generally appointed for a three-year term,butmay be eligible for reappointment if required.In addition to the generic skills that are required for mostboards, our Boards skills include knowledge and expertisein transfusion medicine, specifically in relation to NationalSociety blood programmes.Prof Philippe VandekerckhovePresidentChief Executive OfficerBelgian Red CrossBlood ServiceThe GAP Executive Board convenes regularly to review,approve and action GAP-related activities and objectives.In August 2016, Ms Shelly Park was elected as a newGAP Executive Board member following the resignationofMsJennifer Williams from this position.In addition to the GAP Executive Board, the organisation isalso represented by Regional Coordinators from the 5 IFRCregions (Americas,Asia & Pacific, Europe & Central Asia,Middle East &NorthernAfrica andAfrica).The role of the these coordinators is to liaise closely withtheir local IFRC regional office and look for opportunitiesto collaborateon activities in the critical area of corporategovernance and risk management for National Societiesinvolved in blood programmes.AmericaDr Elizabeth Vinelli (Honduras)Asia & PacificDr Kenji Tadokoro (Japan)Europe & Central AsiaDr Rudolf SchwabePermanent Board memberDr Wolfgang Mayr (Austria)Chief Executive OfficerTransfusion SwissRed CrossMENAProf Eilat Shinar (Israel)AFRICAPosition vacantProf Wolfgang MayrVice PresidentMs Shelly ParkBoard memberMedical CouncillorAustrian Red CrossBlood ServiceChief Executive OfficerAustralian Red CrossBlood Service2016 GAP Annual General MeetingLeft: GAP members atthe 2016 AGM in Dubai.The GAP Annual General Meeting is the primary decisionmaking forum of the organiation and consists of all memberrepresentatives and IFRC observers.In 2016, the GAP AGM was held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.6| GAP Annual Report 2016One of the key outcomes of the 2016 GAPAGMwas the decision to increase GAP support toNational Societies in Voluntary Non-RemuneratedBlood Donation (VNRBD).Governance|7Global MappingWhat is global mapping?To fulfil its governance and risk management mandate, itis critical for GAP to have accurate and current information on theblood activities of National Societies. GAP conducts a regular global survey (global mapping) of all Red Cross/Red CrescentNational Societies to determine their level ofinvolvement in their countrys national blood program. The most recent surveywas conducted in 2015/16, withdata requested from all 190 National Societies.National Societies may be involved in a national blood programme at 3 levels or they may have noinvolvement at all (Nil).Level of involvement in Blood Program ActivityThe 2015/2016 Global Mapping has achieved an 88% response rate (168 responses from 190 National Societies). Thisresult demonstrates the high success of the program this year, as compared to previous analysis and reporting periods. In2013/2014, the response rate was just 38%.100How will the Global Mapping data be reported?A report on all 190 National Societies has been preparedby GAP which includes the data collected from the globalmapping survey, as well as additional information obtainedby GAP from public sources.For each Red Cross/Red Crescent National Society,the report provides:A. Full Blood Service ProvisionGovernance Advocacy for appropriate use Product distribution Laboratory testing Component preparation Collection services/donor care Donor recruitment Promotional campaigns Education and awareness Involvement in WBDD Donor recruitment Promotional campaigns Education and awareness Involvement in WBDDLevel of engagement of the National Society in the bloodprogramme (A, B, C or Nil)National context (including size of country, population,economy, health system)National blood programme (providers, regulation,trends, VNRBD rate)Red Cross/Red Crescent blood programme (history,funding, statistics, accreditation, partnerships)Any current changes in a National Society level of activityin a blood programme or intentions to expand/decreasethe level of activityB. Systematic Blood Donor RecruitmentDonor recruitment Promotional campaigns Education and awareness Involvement in WBDDC. Advocacy for VNRBDPromotional campaigns Education and awareness Involvement in WBDDIn addition to determining the level of involvement in bloodservices, the global mapping data is also used to inform theGAP Self-assessment and disaster response managementprotocols.Self-assessmentThe information obtained from the GAPglobal mappingprocess is primarily used as a precursor to the GAP Selfassessment programme (for Level A blood services) whichassists National Societies to identify and manage theirparticular corporate governance and risk managementissues; thereby helping to ensure the long term sustainabilityof their blood service.The highest level of risk resides with those National Societiesoperating full blood services (Level A), therefore GAPsprimary focus is on providing support to Level A NationalSocieties and their associated blood services.Disaster responseThe global mapping data is also a valuable referencetool for GAP and the IFRC in disaster response, to enablerapid assessment of the potential impact of a disaster ona National Society blood program, and to determine theextent of support that may be required if the blood service isaffected.8| GAP Annual Report 2016How was the data collected?The survey was distributed to National Societies in all 5 IFRCregions - Africa, America, Asia & Pacific, Europe & CentralAsia and Middle East & Northern Africa.806040200Number of blood collectionsInvolvement in any fractionation, transfusion or cell/tissue therapiesBlood Service accreditationCertain National Societies in the Africa region were askedsupplementary questions relating to the Ebola recoveryeffort, following the outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2016.AfricaAmericaAsia PacificEurope &Central AsiaMENALegendNo. receivedNational Societies in regionThe GAP Global Mapping Report will be publishedin 2017 and will be available on the GAP website:www.globaladvisorypanel.orgUnknown22 (12%)All National Societies were asked to provide information onthe mode of coordination of their blood program activities,funding mechanisms, donor recruitment programs (if inplace) and any potential plans to expand ordecrease theiractivities.For those National Societies operating a Level A bloodservice (collecting blood from donors and also possiblyprocessing, testing and distributing blood collected),questions were included for GAP to gain a comprehensiveunderstanding of the scope of activity including:Global Mapping Survey Response Rate(2015/2016)Level A36 (19%)Nil 25 (13%)Global mapping results from all regionsin 2015/2016 (total 190 National Societies)Level C39 (20%)Level B68 (36%)Of the 168 respondents, 143 (85%) are involved in theirnational blood programme.There are currently 36 known Level A National Societies(those involved in providing a full blood service).More National Societies are involved in the systematicrecruitment of blood donors (Level B 68) than at anyotherlevel.Global Mapping|9Global Mapping Results Per Region in 2015/201610| GAP Annual Report 2016Global Mapping| 11Level of Involvement of National SocietiesbyRegionAFRICAAMERICASFocus on Level A National SocietiesASIA PACIFICMENA511251311129181Number of National Societieswho have achieved 100% VNRBD0No. of National Societies thatcollect 100% countrys supplyAMERICA5IsraelNicaragua, Suriname,America, El Salvador,Guatamala14103EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIAEUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA14108MENA9The greatest number ofLevel A National Societyblood programmescontinues to be in theAsia Pacific region with12 National Societies,accounting for 33% of allLevel A National Societiesidentified.332206No. of National Societies thatcollect 100% countrys supplyNicaragua, Suriname, HaitiNumber of National Societieswho have achieved 100% VNRBDAustria, Belgium, Finland,Germany, Luxembourg, Spain,Switzerland, Turkey3Number of National Societieswho have achieved 100% VNRBDEurope &Central Asia= 9 (25%)AFRICAAmericas= 11 (31%)No. of National Societies thatcollect 100% countrys supplyFinland, Luxembourg, SwitzerlandMENA=3(8%)Asia Pacific= 12 (33%)0Number of National Societieswho have achieved 100% VNRBD0No. of National Societies thatcollect 100% countrys supplyAfrica = 1 (3%)ASIA PACIFICLegendLevel A12Level B| GAP Annual Report 2016Level CNil Involvement4Number of National Societieswho have achieved 100% VNRBDAustralia, Japan,Republic of Korea, Thailand3No. of National Societies thatcollect 100% countrys supplyAustralia, Japan, LaosGlobal Mapping| 13Self-assessmentGAPs primary tool for Level ANational Society Blood Services isthe distribution and evaluation of theSelf-assessment survey. The GAPSelf-assessment tool was developedin 2003 to assist National Societiesin assessing whether they haveappropriate measures in place tomanage the risks associated withprovision oftheir blood service, and isrun every two to three years.The Self-assessment assists National Societies to ensurethat appropriate steps are being taken to support thelong term stability and sustainability of their blood servicewithoutexposure to unnecessary risk. National Society bloodservices can measure their progress against selected criteriaidentified by National Society blood experts as fundamentalaspects for appropriate corporate governance and riskmanagement of a blood programme.It is a National Societys responsibility to manage the risksassociated with its blood service activities. GAPs role isto provide advice to assist the National Society and theirblood service in their efforts to improve their own corporategovernance and risk management. The Self-assessmentprocess provides individual feedback to the blood serviceon risk and governance issues including recommendedstrategies and suggested next steps for reducing exposure toany current risks.GAP also provides de-identified regional reports to enablecomparison of performance and identification of commonthemes or challenges within a region which are furtherdiscussed with National Society blood services at GAPregional meetings following the Self-assessment process.Above: Attendees at the GAP Self-assessment meeting, Delhi November 2016Indian Red Cross SocietyQuestionnaire ReviewThe GAP Self-assessment questionnaire is regularlyreviewed by members to ensure it remains relevantwith the rapidly changing global environment and itincludesemerging infectious diseases and continualadvancements in medical expertise and technology.In 2016, additional questions were added to the GAPSelf-assessment to evaluate a National Society bloodservices risk profile with regard to:1. Disaster preparedness The ability for a NationalSociety blood service to have systems in place tomaintain service delivery in the event of a disaster(e.g. business continuity plan or disaster preparednessprocedures) is an important risk mitigation measure.2. Global stepwise accreditation standards In somecountries, national technical standards may notexist and achievement of international best practicetechnical standards may not be feasible, particularlyfordeveloping countries. Stepwise accreditationstandards provide minimum standards and a systematicprogression toward higher levels of accreditation. Theinclusion of a reference to global stepwise standards14| GAP Annual Report 2016in the Self-assessment enables the blood service toindicate that they are working towards accreditation.3. Use of the Red Cross/Red Crescent log by non RC/RCentities The use of the name or logo by non RC/RCorganisations may have an impact onthe reputationalrisk for the IFRC.The national blood system in India is decentralised, with 2767blood banks in operation across the country run by either theMinistry of Health, NGO/not-for-profit organisations or theprivate/commercial sector.TheIndian Red Cross Society is responsible forapproximately 5-10% ofthe national total bloodcollection and has 166 independent blood banksacross the 36 states and Union Territories.With the assistance of Dr Vanshree Singh (Blood BankDirector - Indian Red Cross New Delhi HQ), GAP has beenundertaking an expanded Self-assessment process withinIndia, with 17 of the largest blood banks having completedthe GAP questionnaire since 2015. This process is aimingtoprovide increased visibility for the Indian Red Crossnational headquarters and GAP on the risks which existineach centre and for the Indian Red Cross blood networkasa whole.The meeting was also attended by representatives of theIndian government Ministry of Health (MoH) who provided anupdate on the MoH training programmes available and recentchanges to national regulations. The MoH are very supportiveof the Red Cross national blood program in India includingany future opportunities to strengthen this network.There were a number of positive outcomes of the GAPmeeting in Delhi, including:A commitment by the Indian Red Cross to improvestandardisation and integration of the Red Crossbloodbank networkPlans to improve visibility for the Indian Red Crossthrough data collection and reporting to the Red Crossnational HQ in DelhiFuture strengthening of individual blood banks andthe Red Cross network by increasing available trainingopportunitiesAn agreement for the Indian Red Cross to collectivelyapproach the Ministry of Health to discuss the nationalblood cost recovery model and the impact on this tostable funding arrangements for the blood banksSelf-assessment MeetingIn November 2016 a GAP delegation visited India to meetwith representatives of the Indian Red Cross blood bankswho had completed the GAP Self-assessment.Participants at the GAP meeting were provided with anopportunity to present an overview of their blood bank. Anumber of common strengths and challenges were identified.Positively, many centres noted adequate funding, equipment/infrastructure, high levels of VNRBD and achievement ofnational accreditation.GAP will continue to assist the Indian Red Cross in 2017withthe distribution of the Self-assessment to a furthersubset of blood banks across the country.Self-assessment| 15Country Support ProgrammesGAP provides targeted assistance to a small numberof identified priority country National Society bloodservices. These countries have been assessed by GAPasrequiring specific support in corporate governanceand risk management of blood programmes followingthecompletionof the GAP Self-assessment questionnaire.Above: Dr Veer Bhushan (Indian Red Cross Joint Secretary) and Dr Vanshree Singh (Indian Red Cross Blood Bank Director) withGAP delegatesSupport provided to GAP priority countries may include:In-country support visitsProvision of GAP tools, resources and GAP expertiseIdentification of partnering opportunitieswith other National Society Blood ServicesCo-ordination of technical assistance from GAPmembers or partnersAdvocacy support with key stakeholdersIn 2016, GAPs priority countries were Nepal,Bangladesh, Honduras and Indonesia.Indian Red Cross blood banks who have completed the GAP Self-assessment questionnaireNew DelhiPatnaAhmedabadAnand & GodhraRajkotNavsariDadra & Nagar Haveli UTBombay CityLaturSolapurVisakhaptanamKurnoolNelloreBangaloreThanjavurTamil Nadu16 | GAP Annual Report 2016Dr Veer Bhushan (Acting Secretary General,Indian Red Cross), Dr Vanshree Singh andthe meeting attendees noted that the GAPmeeting in India was the first opportunityfor representatives of the Indian Red Crossblood banks to come together to discusstheir activities, and they were very pleased tohave been provided with this opportunity. Themeeting showcased individual blood bankachievements that could be realised nationallyby the Indian Red Cross by leveraging thestrengths and expertise that already existswithin this network.Country Support Programmes| 17Nepal Post Earthquake Recovery ProgrammeIn 2010, the Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS) NationalBlood Transfusion Service was selected as a GAP prioritycountry blood service and GAP has maintained a close andcollaborative relationship with the Blood Service ever since,through the provision of specific risk management servicesand technical assistance.Following the devastating 7.9 magnitude earthquake inNepal in April 2015, which caused extensive destructionto infrastructure and livelihoods, GAP has been providingassistance to the Nepal Red Cross in the reconstruction ofthe national blood service. GAP has a specialist role in postemergency situations, including short-term relief as well aslong term rebuilding, in accordance with GAPs Terms ofReference.The earthquake in Nepal resulted in significant damagetoblood service buildings and facilities, both in Kathmanduand regional areas. The Central Blood Transfusion Service(CBTS) centre in Kathmandu, which serves as the primarycoordination hub for the national blood service, was severelydamaged and was demolished during 2016. The blood centrewill be rebuilt with financial support from theThai Red Cross.An extensive scoping assessment of the earthquake impacton blood service facilities was undertaken by GAP in 2015,and recommendations and proposed activities to rebuild theblood program were developed and discussed with PartnerNational Societies interested in providing financial and/ortechnical support.The development and distribution of GAPsrecovery proposal for the Nepal Red Cross Societyblood program, combined with the series ofmeetings held with prospective stakeholders, hasenabled GAP to maximise potential partner fundingand support for this project and has providedtransparency of multiple partner programs tominimise the risks of duplication of activities andinvestmentsFollowing an adjustment of the project coordination modalityby GAP to align with the local Nepal Red Cross EmergencyResponse Operations Unit (ERO), contracting for blood centrefacility construction is being managed by the dedicatedNRCS ERO Unit, with GAP providing increased technical inputand expertise to NRCS and partners for the project, includingtechnical input on facility design.With the support of Partner National Societies, the projectis providing assistance to the Nepal Red Cross SocietyBlood Service with:Blood centre facility rebuild/repairCapacity buildingTechnical trainingStrategic supportCritical blood service equipmentLocal coordination support and Technical assistanceDuring 2016, a GAP delegation visited Nepal in May andNovember to meet with the NRCS Blood Service DirectorDrManita Rajkarnikar, key stakeholders and Partner NationalSocieties to confirm the agreed support activities. Furtherassessments were conducted of blood service infrastructureand facilities including temporary facilities and arrangementsfor the NRCS blood program. The November visit included aGAP facilitated joint meeting for all blood program supportpartners to provide an update on GAP activities and programstatus.Left: Nepal Red Cross Blood Service staffAbove: Nepal Red Cross Blood Service staff and voluntary blood donor18| GAP Annual Report 2016Above: GAP Member Dr Ubonwon Charoonruangrit (Thailand National Blood Centre) in NepalCountry Support Programmes| 19GAP coordination support to the programmehasbeen effective in:Developing a single national plan for facility,equipment and capability improvementactivities which is matched to assessedandagreed local requirements andminimumstandards within Nepal;Providing a baseline assessment for thetechnical training program developmentbytraining partnersProvision of different models for themanagement of donated funds and servicesto accommodate the preferred supportarrangements for each of thePartner National Societies.Above: Meeting with Partner National Societies in NepalGAPs technical input and support for the NRCS blood program recovery includes:Facility designs/layouts and workflow advice for blood centres (new facility buildsand for retrofits/modifications)Critical blood service equipment specification development and installation/validation protocolsBase line assessment to stepwise accreditation standards as basis for thedevelopment of tailored capacity building and training programs by partnersTechnical advice on blood service processes,interim arrangements and transition plans20| GAP Annual Report 2016Above: Earthquake damage at the Nepal Red Cross Bhaktapur Blood Bankand Chapter buildingCountry Support Programmes| 21HondurasGAP has been providing assistance to the Honduran RedCross Blood Service as a GAP priority country since 2012,in conjunction with a bilateral programme of support fromthe Swiss Red Cross. GAP member and Chief ExecutiveOfficer of Transfusion Swiss Red Cross, Dr RudolfSchwabe, provides expertise to this project.Following assessment visits and recommendations fromthe Swiss Red Cross in 2013, the project - Strengtheningof the Honduran Red Cross National Blood Programwas developed. The overall objective of this project is toensure the availability and security of blood and bloodproducts for all patients in Honduras, by strengthening thetechnical, administrative and governance capacity of thenational blood programme of the Honduran Red Cross.The beneficiaries of this project are the vulnerablerecipients of blood products in Honduras includingchildren, the elderly, pregnant women and trauma victims.The project will also directly benefit the Honduran RedCross blood programme and staff.GovernanceVoluntary Blood DonationIn 2016 the Swiss Red Cross project supported the HonduranRed Cross in strengthening their governance structureincluding the appointment of the new General Managerforthe Blood Service, Dr Glenda Arriaga, who has beenwiththe organisation for over 19 years. Dr Juan Pablo Bulneswas also appointed as the new Deputy General Manager.DrBulnes began working with the Honduran Red Cross BloodService in May 2016 and also took over the general projectlead.To assist in strengthening voluntary blood donation inHonduras, GAP is supporting the development of an onlinedonor recruitment training module for the Honduran RedCross Blood Service. This is being facilitated through theSwiss Red Cross bilateral partnership as an adjunct activityto the existing program.Dr Elizabeth Vinelli (GAP member representative forHonduras) resigned from the position of Medical Directorof the Honduran Red Cross Blood Service in early 2016 butcontinues to provide support and expertise to the project,andto GAP, through her position on the Blood Service board.WorkshopsAbove: Honduran Red Cross Blood Service staffThe Honduran Red Cross Blood Service is the mainprovider of blood in the country, collecting 50% of thenational supply.Project outcomes for the Honduran Red Cross Blood Service:As part of the bilateral project with the Swiss Red Cross, twoworkshops on risk management were held in Honduras (Mayand October 2016) for the staff of the Honduran Red Cross.The first workshop identified, analysed and prioritised therisks for the National Society. During the second Workshopan action plan was developed to address these risks. Theparticipants were very engaged in the discussions andappreciated this opportunity.During 2016, the Honduran Red Cross began the adaptationof the VNRBD training materials of the European BloodAlliance/Domaine Project for the Honduran context. Thee-learning component experienced delays in implementationdue to the changes in management of the Blood Service andthe required familiarisation with the Blood Service and theproject.The storyboard for the online tool will be ready for specialisedprofessional programming and format translation for theIFRC learning platform in late 2017, atwhich time the pilotproject will be implemented.It is anticipated that, once complete, the online tool will alsobe made available to other National Societies worldwide, witha view to assisting with the achievement of 100% VNRBD.This is acknowledged as a major challenge for developingcountries.The Swiss Red Cross delegates also participated in anotherin-country workshop, facilitated by the Honduran Ministry ofHealth and the Pan-American Health Organisation, to discussthe outline of a new national blood policy for Honduras.Defined constitutedgovernance structureImprovingVNRBD ratesProject outcomesfor the HonduranRed CrossBlood ServiceTechnical capacitybuilding22| GAP Annual Report 2016Improved coordinationof the NationalBlood SystemAbove: GAP member Dr Rudolf Schwabe (rear right) with staff of the Honduran Red Cross Blood ServiceCountry Support Programmes| 23BangladeshIndonesiaIn 2016, GAP continued to support the Bangladesh Red CrescentBlood Service who have been a GAP priority country since 2014.Key activities for the year included:Above: Above: GAP visit to Indonesia September 2016The Indonesian Red Cross (PalangMerah Indonesia PMI) has beena GAP priority country since 2005;however this status was placed onhold in 2013 while PMI were involvedin a bilateral support partnership withthe Australian Red Cross. PMI provide90% of the national blood supply inIndonesia and 92% of these collectionsare from VNRBD donors.In September 2016, GAP visitedIndonesia to assess the risk statusofthe PMI Blood Service followingthecompletion of their bilateral projectwith the Australian Red Cross.Thevisit provided an opportunity forGAP to review the progress of the PMIBlood Service since the completion ofthe Self-assessment questionnaire in2013 and to discuss risk managementadvice for any new areas of activity forthe Blood Service.Since 2012, the bilateral program withthe Australian Red Cross focussedon implementing a national qualitymanagement system and progressingtowards a centralised national bloodservice.24| GAP Annual Report 2016The PMI Central Blood Transfusion Service managementteam arehighly engaged and demonstrated a commitmenttoproviding a quality blood service for Indonesia, includingthe implementation of improvements to achieve nationalGood Manufacturing Practice (GMP) accreditation andan appreciation of the necessary requirements for riskmanagement.The PMI Blood Service has benefittedfrom the expertise and trainingprovided during the program anda number of achievements andimprovements were evident duringthe GAP visit in September, includingthe implementation of new qualitydocumentation and processes.Sponsorship and funding toenable the Bangladesh RedCrescent Blood Service Director,Dr Tarique Mehedi and a seniorrepresentative from the BloodService to attend the joint IFRC/Korean Red Cross VNRBDworkshop in Seoul, Korea.Establishment of Partner NationalSociety support for the provisionof a specific technical assistanceprogram for the Blood Service,to be provided byAustralian RedCross through the Australian RedCross Blood Service.Provision of advice and support toDr Mehedi to:GAP provided specific advice to PMIregarding the risks of fractionationandappropriate safeguards requiredfor involvement in this activity.PMI CBTS have also recentlyundertaken their own internalcapacitymapping for all 212PMI bloodtransfusion centresto determinethe requirementsnecessaryto achieve GMPaccreditation.Significantly, the visit enabled GAPto discuss with the blood service thefuture plans of PMI to provide plasmafor fractionation to a governmentrun fractionation plant in 2020.Currently a large proportion of theplasma produced in Indonesia isdiscarded (approximately 80%) andthis will provide an opportunity for thedomestic manufacture and supply ofplasma derived products (includingFactor VIII, Factor IX, Albumin andImmunoglobulins).Progress the implementation ofthe strategic plan for the BloodService.Hold seminars for the staff of theBangladesh Red Crescent andstakeholders on VNRBD, safetransfusion and rational use ofblood. The plans for the seminarswere subsequently placed on holdin 2016 due to the current securityissues in Bangladesh; howeverGAP is providing remote supportwhere possible.Above: Representatives of the Bangladesh Red Crescent Blood Service attendedthe IFRC/Korean Red Cross VNRBD workshop in Seoul (Korea) in April 2016.Country Support Programmes| 25Global NetworksIFRC Asia Pacific MeetingOur links with IFRCGAP cooperates with the International Federation of Red Cross/Red CrescentSocieties (IFRC) at a global, regional and secretariat level on strategicand operational matters relating to the corporate governance and riskmanagementaspects of National Society blood programmes.GAPs role and purpose is described in the IFRCs blood policy PromotingSafeand Sustainable Blood Systems which outlinesthe specificresponsibilities of the IFRC, GAP, National Societies and blood services inmanaging blood programme risk. TheIFRC has a permanent observer status onGAP and an IFRC representative attends meetings of the GAP Executive Boardto ensure theflow of information and coordination with the IFRC.IFRC Reference CentreGAP is recognised as an IFRC Reference Centre forthespecialist support function that GAP provides toRedCross/Red Crescent National Societies with regardtotheirinvolvement in the provision of a blood programme.Theare hosted by Red Cross/Red Crescent NationalSocieties around the world.Each centre has a specific focus and supports knowledgeexchange essential for National Society operations includingtraining, technical assistance, advocacy, knowledgemanagement and research. The primary function ofeachreference centre is to develop strategically significantknowledge and best practice to inform the future operationsof the IFRC and National Societies in their key areas ofinterest and influence.Above: Dr Julie Hall (Director Health& Care) was the IFRC observer on GAPin 2016.In July 2016, GAP was highlighted in thefortnightly publication of the IFRC Health & CareBulletin. This newsletter is distributed to over 500subscribers globally from a variety of networksincluding health and WASH staff and advisors,FirstAid Coordinators, Disaster Managementcolleagues and the IFRC secretariat managementin Geneva. Thearticle on GAP provided anoverview of the role of GAP and our activities, witha special focus on the global mapping project as ameans to encourage those National Societies whohad not yet responded to complete the survey.Michelle Wsolak from the GAP Secretariat represented GAPat the IFRC Asia Pacific Regional Health & WASH meeting inKuala Lumpur (Malaysia) in June 2016. The purpose of thismeeting was to share knowledge and provide updates onregional health and WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene)issues and activities across a range of health-related areasin the Asia Pacific. The event was attended by 59 delegatesfrom National Societies globally.GAP presented on safe blood systems, voluntary blooddonation and, in recognition of World Blood Donor Dayon June 14th, spoke of the importance of recognising theincredibly valuable contribution of blood donors globally tosupport sustainable blood programs. A case study was alsopresented on the effects of migration on availabilityof rare blood types in patients and donors in Australia.The meeting also provided an opportunity for GAP toholddirect discussions with the new IFRC Head of Health, DrJulieHall and IFRC Asia Pacific Health Coordinator, OyungerelAmgaa on emerging Asia Pacific regional healthissues.Above: Michelle Wsolak presenting at the Asia PacificRegional Health and WASH meeting in Kuala Lumpur.Transfusion TodayGAP was featured in the June 2016 issue of TransfusionToday, in a focus on Alliances and networks in bloodtransfusion. The article provided an overview of thestructure and role of GAP as well as the Self-assessmentandpriority country activities. Inclusion of GAP in thispublication provided an excellent promotional opportunityforthe organisation.26| GAP Annual Report 2016Global Networks| 27Financial ReportAsia Pacific VNRBD WorkshopActual I&E 2016(Includes Aust & SwissAccounts)Approved 2016 BudgetSwiss AccountAustralian AccountsNotesOpening balanceGAP accountsAustralian Account417,860Swiss Account417,86096,95996,959IFRC Funding accountAustralian AccountAbove : GAP member Prof Eilat Shinar (Magen David Adom Israel) presenting at the VNRBD workshop in Seoul.Above: Attendess at the VNRBD workshop in Seoul.(444)Combined opening balance at 1 January417,416(444)96,959514,374IncomeAn Asia Pacific workshop on voluntaryblood donor recruitment was heldin Seoul (South Korea) in April 2016and was co-hosted by the IFRC andthe Republic of Korea National RedCross. GAP participated in both theplanning of the event and facilitationof the workshops and panel/groupdiscussions during the meeting.GAPrepresentation was provided byour member representative for Israel,Professor Eilat Shinar.The purpose of the workshop wasto increase the capacity of NationalSocieties in the Asia Pacific regiontoimplement quality voluntary nonremunerated blood donation (VNRBD)recruitment programmes and tostrengthen regional cooperation andnetworking among National Societies.The event was attended by 89participants from 23 countries.GAP also provided financial supportfor two delegates from the BangladeshRed Crescent Society to attend theworkshop as part of GAPs prioritycountry assistance program, to helptoimprove the national VNRBD ratesinBangladesh.One of the key points highlighted inthe final workshop report was theimportance of the cooperation betweenGAP, IFRC, Korean Red Cross and otherdeveloped blood services in improvingVNRBD rates in the Asia Pacific region.Prof Shinar presented GAPsPerspective on VNRBD, as well asthedevelopment and maintenance ofa young VNRBD program using Israelasa model.2016 Member ContributionsAmerica21,00021,00021,000Australia21,00021,00021,000Finland21,00021,00021,000Israel21,00021,00021,000Japan21,00021,00021,000Switzerland21,00021,00021,000Germany21,00021,00021,000Austria21,00021,00021,00021,00021,00021,000BelgiumIndia01Thailand21,00021,00021,000210,000210,000065,000016,5035,00016,50300000500016,503070,50016,503Hong Kong - special statusHonduras - exemptsubtotal210,00002016 IFRC MOU funding IncomeIncome22016 Interest IncomeInterest GAP AustralianaccountOur sincere thanks to Prof Eilat Shinar for attendingandrepresenting GAP at the workshop and forproviding valuablefeedback to members on theworkshops keytopics.28| GAP Annual Report 2016Interest GAP Swiss accountInterest IFRC fundingaccountsubtotalFinance| 29Actual I&E 2016(Includes Aust & SwissAccounts)Approved 2016 BudgetSwiss AccountAustralian AccountsNotesActual I&E 2016(Includes Aust & SwissAccounts)Approved 2016 BudgetSwiss AccountAustralian AccountsNotesSupport for Nepal Recovery ProgramPriority country supportBelgium contribution preserved for Gorkha blood centre3VNRBD Consultancy(Belgian Red Cross)4113,574113,574NepalOther IncomeTotal Income37,537377,61437,5370280,500Post disaster support see separate line itemNRCS CBTS director trainingwith Australian Red CrossBlood Service(Approved GAP EB April 2015)(5,652)Support program, travel andaccomodation(4,374)(51,000)(4,374)(12,177)(39,242)(12,177)(4,258)(10,000)(4,258)0(1,000)0(1,177)(6,000)(1,177)(1,807)(130,000)(1,807)(24,770)(33,800)(24,770)(23,776)(43,391)(23,776)(12,177)(54,400)(12,177)(391)(2,500)(391)377,614BangladeshExpenditureSecretariat coordination,logistics and supportSecretariatSelf Assessment costs:Salary and oncosts(35,434)(35,979)(35,434)Secretariatcosts:Secretariat salary, oncosts andoffice expenses(80,430)(81,666)(80,430)(115,864)(117,645)(115,864)subtotal(5,652)HondurasTravel & accommodationOther expensesIndonesiaTravel and accomodationPost disaster response NepalSpecialist AdviceGAP SupportTranslation - Self assessmentreports, GAP manual, questionnaire, publications/standards(1,422)(5,000)(1,422)MMR followup (salary and travel)Professional expertise eg legal0(1,000)0Stakeholder meetings(e.g. VNRBD W/S, IFRC,Reference Centres,WHO, ISBT)Travel & accommodation5Global mapping (salary and travel)6Stepwise accreditationWebsite hosting and technical maintenance(3,068)(5,000)(3,068)Insurance0(1,000)0Bank fees(1143)(1,143)Meeting costs(4,404)(10,000)(4,404)Project cost recovery19,03219,032Participant costs(8,350)(5,000)(8,350)(2,390)(9,000)(2,390)Meeting venue/catering(623)(2,000)(623)GAP networking events(dinner)(297)(2,000)(297)GAP Annual Report(308)Other meeting expenses(900)(1,000)(900)Regional meetingsContingency funds0(20,000)0(555,678)(210,297)Annual General MeetingTravel & accommodationOther expenses00Teleconferencing Calls costs0(1,000)0(2,000)0Teleconferences30| GAP Annual Report 2016(205,139)(5,158)Closing balance589,89091,801681,692(308)Executive Board Meeting(s)Meeting venue/catering andtravel accommodationTotal Expenditure(2,700)0NotesExchange rates:1.Membership fees for 2016 & 2017 (42,000 CHF) received Dec 2015.Opening Balance Exchange rate as per XE Currency converter Oanda website31 December 2015: 1 AUD = 0.7243 CHF 2.Funding from IFRC not received in 2016.3.Belgium contribution preserved for Gorkha blood centre(Nepal) Euro 101,045.4.Belgium contribution for VNRBD consultancy (50,000 Euro) invoicedinDec 2016 but not received until Jan 2017.5.2016 budget (130,000 CHF) approved to cover GAP coordinationof post disaster support in the event that no external funding sourced.Expenditure Exchange rate as per weighted average 1 AUD = 0.6910 CHF6.Global mapping budget of 43,391 CHF is for 2015 & 2016.Closing Balance Exchange rate as per XE Currency converter Oanda website asat 31 Dec 2016 = 1AUD = 0.734642 CHFInterest Exchange Rate as per average exchange rate for the year 0.7328Belgium contribution for Gorkha Exchange rate as per average exchange ratefor the year 0.7328VNRBD Consultancy Fees received in January used average exchange rateinJan17 - 0.750735Finance| 31HistoryGAP was formed in May 2001 by a group ofexperts from National Society blood services inorder to share knowledge on risk managementand to provide advice to Red Cross/Red CrescentNational Societies on the proper managementofrisks associated with blood programmes.Thiswas a result of the IFRC governing boarddeciding to distance itself from blood bankingdue to concerns regarding the legal liabilitiesassociated with this activity.The initial members of GAP were the American,Finnish, Japanese, Swiss, Thai and AustralianRedCross. Since that time, GAPs membership hasgrown and GAP has continued to provide technicalsupport and assistance to National Societyblood services. In June 2012, GAP was officiallyestablished as an independent Associationregistered under Swiss law, and governed by anExecutive Board.Currently GAPs membership standards at thirteenNational Society blood services, all of whomconduct Level A blood programmes.32| GAP Annual Report 2016History| 33Contact GAPGAP SECRETARIATA Level 1, 69 Walters Drive, Osborne Park WA 6017, AustraliaP +61 8 6213 5909F +61 8 6213 5949E globaladvisorypanel.orgGood Governance, safe blood
GAP Annual Report 2015
GAP ANNUALREPORT 2015Good Governance, safe bloodCONTENTSOVERVIEWOverview1GAPs purposeVision and missionMessage from the President2015 Performance HighlightsGovernance4MembershipExecutive BoardZonal CoordinatorsGAP ElectionsIFRCThe Global Advisory Panel onCorporate Governanceand Risk Management of Blood Services in Red Crossand Red Crescent Societies (GAP) is a global networkof Red Cross and Red Crescent Blood Services withspecific expertise in risk management and corporategovernance of blood programmes.8Memorandum of UnderstandingWorld Blood Donor DayEveryone Counts ReportIFRC Reference CentreGAP is an independent Association, registered underSwiss Law and affiliated with the International Federationof Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC).The networks purpose is to:Activities10Global MappingSelf-assessmentPriority Country SupportDisaster Response Nepal EarthquakeFinanceIncome & Expenditure Report 2015Audit Report25 Provide technical advice in termsof corporate governance and riskmanagement to National Society BloodServices; Coordinated assistance to NationalSociety Blood Services in post-emergency situations including blood programrecovery; Promote knowledge sharing, networkingand partnership among andbetween National Society BloodServices and external partners; Influence global blood policyin conjunction with its partners; Develop and provide tools, guidelinesand priority country assistance toNational Society Blood Servicesmost in need; Provide advocacy and support to theIFRC and National Society Blood Serviceson issues affecting blood programmes.OUR VISIONOUR MISSIONAll Red Cross/Red Crescent blood programmes will be safe, well governed andself-sustainable, based on the principleof voluntary non remunerated blooddonation for the benefit of patients andto safeguard blood donors.GAP will support Red Cross/Red Crescent blood services in risk managementand corporate governance of blood programmes and promote good practicesand knowledge exchange.OVERVIEW| 1MESSAGE FROMTHE PRESIDENTProfessor Philippe Vandekerckhove, MD, PhDGAP President2015 has seen GAP continue to deliver itscore programme of work, which centres uponproviding assistance to Red Cross and RedCrescent National Societies to identify anypotential risks associated with their involvementin a blood programme and providing specialistsupport to help address any risk areas.Since GAPs early beginnings back in 2000,the risk identification programme has beenbased on the use of a self-assessment toolspecifically designed to highlight key areas ofrisk. The analysis by GAP of the informationprovided through the assessment, the development of advice and strategies to addressthese risks and challenges, and the provisionof advocacy for voluntary non remuneratedblood donation, remains the fundamental basis of GAPs support for National Societies.In recent years however, GAPs role hasfurther evolved and adapted to the changing needs of National Society blood programmes and their areas of activity, as wellas adapting to the needs of IFRC to supportthe implementation of the blood policy. GAPhas increased the visibility of its support service capability and expertise among NationalSocieties, through its recognised role as anIFRC reference centre. Simultaneously, GAPhas had an increased level of involvementin the field, directly supporting a numberof priority country Blood Services throughdedicated assistance programs and particularly, in the last 12 months, in the provisionof post-disaster recovery assistance andcoordination.In terms of disaster response, the existenceof a quality blood service is critical to meetthe high healthcare demand for blood duringthe initial emergency phase. While the availability of blood may be a concern in the event2| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015of a disaster, ensuring the safety of the bloodsupply is also of paramount concern. Therecent experience of the devastating earthquake in Nepal demonstrated the active rolethat GAP has in this arena, assisting the National Society to restore a functional and safeblood supply as soon as possible followingthe disaster and importantly in coordinatingthe long-term rebuilding and recovery of theblood programme once the initial urgencyhad passed, in conjunction with the supportof Partner National Societies.Healthcare systems world-wide require reliable access to a safe and sustainable bloodsupply, which is based on the principle of voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. Weat GAP hope to continue our path of workingtogether with Red Cross and Red CrescentNational Societies to assist them in ensuringthe availability of a safe supply of blood andblood products, and in doing so, to maximally assist those most vulnerable populationsaround the globe.OUR 2015PERFORMANCEHIGHLIGHTSGLOBAL NETWORKSCOMPLIANCESAFETY & GOVERNANCE33 Completionof GAP website33 Self-assessmentdistributed to 10 IndianRed Cross Society bloodcentres33 Priority country support to the BangladeshRed Crescent Blood Service, expertise providedby Dr Wolfgang Mayr.33 GAP recognised as anIFRC reference centre33 Participation in 2015World Blood Donor Day(Shanghai, China)33 Revision of Self-assessment questionnaire toaddress new and emerging risks33 Priority country support to the Honduran Red CrossBlood Service, expertise provided by Dr Rudolf Schwabe.33 Training programme for the Director of the Nepal RedCross Blood Service provided by GAP member, AustralianRed Cross Blood Service33 Library of resources available on the GAP websiteRELATIONSHIPSMEMBERSHIPSIFRC33 Coordination of theNepal post-earthquakerecovery for the bloodprogramme, with NRCS,IFRC and PartnerNational Societies33 New member in 2015 Indian Red Cross33 Participation of GAP in 2015 World Blood Donor Day33 Promotion of VNRBD through priority countryactivities in Bangladesh and Nepal.33 Funding of VNRBD online recruitment trainingmodule for the Honduran Red Cross Blood Service.Professor Philippe Vandekerckhove,MD, PhDGAP PresidentOVERVIEW|3GAP ASSOCIATIONGOVERNANCEMEMBERSHIPCHANGES IN 2015The Global Advisory Panel structure consists of GAP Membersand their representatives, Zonal Coordinators, GAP Executive Board,the Secretariat and IFRC representatives (permanent observeron the GAP Executive Board and Senior VNRBD Officer).GAP member representativeswho retired during the year:GAP MEMBERSHIPCollectively, GAP members provide advice on corporategovernance and risk management of blood servicesand at an individual level, GAP members contribute theirexpertise and knowledge to support a range of GAP programs designed to assist priority country blood services.A General Meeting of all GAP members is held annually.GAP Membership is open to National Society Blood Services which meet the criteria for membership,including theeffective operation of a full Level A blood service. Memberspay an annual membership fee and are represented byeither their Chief Executive, head of their National SocietyBlood Service or a nominated representative.American Red CrossBiomedical ServicesThailand NationalBlood CentreHong Kong Red CrossBlood Transfusion ServiceRichard BenjaminDr Soisaang PhikulsodDr Che Kit LinAmericas Zone CoordinatorWelcome to new memberrepresentatives in 2015:GERMANYDr Erhard SeifriedGerman Red CrossBlood Transfusion CentreFINLANDDr Martti SyrjlDr Satu PastilaFinnish Red CrossBlood ServiceDr Wolfgang MayrAustrian Red CrossBlood ServiceDr Satu PastilaTHAILANDINDIADr Ubonwon CharoonruangritDr Soisaang PhikulsodThai Red Cross NationalBlood CentreDr Veer BhushanIndian RedCross SocietyNew GAP member in 2015SWITZERLANDDr Rudolf SchwabeTransfusion SwissRed CrossDr Gabriel PictetDr Julie HallIFRC PermanentObserver on GAP| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015Dr Cheuk Kwong LeeHONG KONGGENEVA4Dr UbonwonCharoonruangritDr Cheuk Kwong LeeDr Che Kit LinHong Kong Red CrossBlood Transfusion ServiceMr Chris HroudaDr Richard BenjaminAmerican Red CrossBiomedical ServicesDr Elizabeth VinelliHonduran Red CrossNational Blood CentreFinnish Red CrossBlood ServiceDr Kenji TadokoroJapanese Red CrossBlood ServiceAUSTRIAHONDURASHong Kong Red CrossBlood Transfusion ServiceJAPANBELGIUMProf PhilippeVandekerckhoveBelgian Red CrossBlood ServiceAMERICAThailand NationalBlood CentreISRAELProf Eilat ShinarMagen DavidAdom - IsraelPERTHGAP SecretariatAustralian RedCross Blood ServiceAUSTRALIAMs Jennifer WilliamsAustralian RedCross Blood ServiceIndian Red Cross Society is GAPsnewest member country. India joinedGAP in December and member representation is being provided by Dr VeerBhushan, Joint Secretary of the IndianRed Cross Society.GOVERNANCE|5GAP ZONALCOORDINATORS IN 2015GAP EXECUTIVEBOARDThe GAP Executive Board members play avital role in governance and decision makingfor the organisations activities. Board members are generally appointed for a three-yearterm, but may be eligible for reappointment.In addition to the generic skills that arerequired formost boards, our Boards skillsinclude knowledge and expertise in transfu-sion medicine and National Societyblood programmes. An IFRC permanentobserver holds a position on the GAP Executive Board to ensure the flow of informationand coordination with the IFRC. The Executive Board convenes regularly to review,approve and action GAP-related activitiesand objectives.The role of the GAP Zonal Coordinatorsis to liaise closely with their local IFRCzone office and look for opportunitiesto collaborate on activities in the criticalarea of corporate governance and riskmanagement for National Societiesinvolved in blood programmes.AMERICASDr Richard Benjamin (USA)and Dr Elizabeth Vinelli (Honduras)ASIA & PACIFICProf Philippe VandekerckhovePresidentChief Executive OfficerBelgian Red CrossBlood Service FlandersDr Wolfgang MayrVice PresidentMedical CouncillorAustrian Red CrossBlood ServiceMs Jennifer WilliamsBoard memberChief Executive OfficerAustralian Red CrossBlood ServiceDr Che Kit Lin (Hong Kong)and Dr Kenji Tadokoro (Japan)EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIADr Wolfgang Mayr (Austria)MENAVacant in 2015AFRICAVacant in 2015GAP ELECTIONSDr Rudolf SchwabePermanent Board memberChief Executive OfficerTransfusion SwissRed Cross6| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015Dr Julie HallIFRC Permanent ObserverIn 2015, GAP held an election for all Executive Board and Zonal Coordinator positionswhich came to the end of their 3 year termsin December 2015. The result of this wasthat all members were re-elected to thesame positions commencing from1st January 2016.Prof Eilat Shinar (MDA Israel) was newlyelected to the previously vacant positionof Zone Coordinator for the Middle Eastand Northern Africa region.GOVERNANCE|739GAPs role and purpose is described in theIFRCs blood policy Promoting Safe andSustainable Blood Systems which outlinesthe specific responsibilities of the IFRC,GAP, National Societies and blood servicesin managing blood programme risk.The IFRC was instrumental in the creationof GAP and participates as a permanentobserver to ensure the flow of informationand coordination with the IFRC. Regularcommunication and constructive ties between GAP and the IFRC Secretariat ensurethe coordination of work programs andsupport links, particularly with respect toVNRBD. The IFRC has a permanent standinginvitation to attend the GAP Annual GeneralMeetings and the Executive Board meetings.Dr Gabriel Pictet (Acting Head of Health,IFRC) was the IFRC observer on GAPuntil September 2015, at which timeDr Julie Hall was appointed to thisposition (IFRC Head of Health)Memorandum of UnderstandingIFRC provided GAP with a grant in 2015to strengthen GAPs ability to act accordingto the IFRC Blood Policy Promoting Safeand Sustainable National Blood Systems.This grant was supported by a Memorandumof Understanding, agreed to by both parties.The funding was provided to supportthe following GAP activities:1. Extension of the GAP Self-assessmentprocess into an additional region in 2015The Self-assessment process wascompleted in the Middle East &Northern Africa (MENA) region andcommenced as an expanded activityin India in 2015.2. Conduct Major Material Risk(MMR) follow-up and investigation:In 2015, GAP conducted a visitto India as a follow up to theSelf-assessment process.3. Support for GAP priority countries:GAP provided support, includingin-country visits, to priority countriesBangladesh and Nepal.This was a joint initiative by the World HealthOrganisation (WHO), the International Societyof Blood Transfusion (ISBT), the InternationalFederation of Blood Donor Organisations(FIODS) and the Shanghai Blood Bank.8| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015Societies over the year which is measuredAlongsidetheproxyWorld HealthOrganisation, we stronglythrough the sevenkeyindicatorsbelieve in a policy of 100 per cent voluntary non-remufrom the IFRCneratedStrategicPlan.becauseOne ofblood donation,thattheseis safest.At present,only number60 countries havefully achievedthis norm. Givenindicators is theof peopledonatingworldwide shortages of blood and its components, there isblood. Each NationalSocietyprovidesthea long way to go to achieve global blood security. Culturalattitudesan undoubtedin some places.IFRC with theirown aredatafor thisconstraintindicatorand GAP providedadditionalinformationOf the 108 million blood donations collected globally,from its own globalmappingactivities.about 21 millionor a fifthare associated with Red Crossand Red Crescentblood services.GAP also contributeda narrativetoMalesthe tend to dominateas donors, and the Asia Pacific and Europe regions makepublication whichhighlightedtrendsthe most donations (Figure 5.11).of National Society involvement in blood,Operating a full-scale blood programme is a complex andas well as a humaninterest case study fromhighly technical affair, with managing risk and mainandBloodquality beingthe core concerns. Morethe AustraliantainingRedsafetyCrossService.than 80 per cent of National Societies are involved inblood-related activities. A partial survey indicates thatthis is at three levels, ranging from promotion and advocacy for voluntary unremunerated blood donation, tothe systematic recruitment of blood donors, and finally,the provision of full blood services including collecting,testing, processing, and distribution (Figure 5.12).IFRC ReferenceCentreGAP is recognised as an InternationalFederation of Red Cross and Red CrescentSocieties (IFRC) Reference Centre due to thespecialist support function that GAP providesto Red Cross and Red Crescent NationalSocieties with regard to their involvementin the provision of a blood programme. TheReference Centres are delegated functionsof the IFRC and are hosted by Red Cross/RedCrescent National Societies around the world.Each centre has a specific focus and supports knowledge exchange essential for National Society operations including training,technical assistance, advocacy, knowledgemanagement and research. Their primaryfunction as centres of excellence are to develop strategically important knowledge andbest practice that will inform the future operations of the IFRC and National Societies intheir key areas of interest and influence .2015 World Blood Donor DayIn June 2015, a GAP representative attendedthe World Blood Donor Day celebration whichalso included a round-table discussion onthe promotion of voluntary non-remuneratedblood donation (VNRBD) in Shanghai, China.To serve others by donating your spare money, time, orskills is commendable. To give of your own self is trulynoble. It is, therefore, unsurprising that the Red Crossand Red Crescent has been associated with blood servicesIn 2015, GAP evercontributedto the IFRCsince the technology became available. Safe andaccessibleblood suppliesare crucialto save or preservepublication, in medical care and in the aftermath of accidents,This report highlightstheworkofNationalviolence, and disasters.The objective of the round table discussionwas to address the challenges of promotingVNRBD, ways to overcome barriers and toshare new initiatives for VNRBD promotion.GAP provided a presentation which includedinformation on the history and role of GAPand current activities, including the promotion of VNRBD and global mapping.In 2015, GAP was included in the IFRCReference Centres brochures publication,which provides information on the individualreference centres and the support that theyprovide. The article on GAP highlighted thepurpose and key services of the organisationas well as contact information. The IFRCReference Centres brochure was distributeddirectly to all 190 National Societies globallyand is available on both the IFRCand GAPwebsites.Figure 5.11Figure 5.12Number of blood donors(2013 data from 178 National Societies22)JPAsia PacificEuropeAmericasMiddle East andNorth AfricaAfricaDE10,036,243KR6,343,594TRTypes of National Society involvement in blood services(20132014 data from 74 National Societies)7454+ 40+ 36+OUR LINKS WITH IFRC5.5 Promoting safeEveryoneblood systemsCounts Report37%US3,753,442Full blood serviceincluding collection477,38027%139,490Recruitment ofblood donorsTop five National Societies:1. Japanese Red Cross Society2. American Red Cross3. The Republic of Korea National Red Cross4. German Red Cross5. Turkish Red Crescent Society20%Global gender breakdown of the number of blood donors65.8%658+342=MaleFemale34.2%16%Promotion andadvocacy for voluntarynon-remuneratedblood donorsNo involvementSource: FDRS22 Number of National Societies reporting on blood donors in Asia Pacific:32, Europe:51,Americas:35, Middle East and North Africa:16, Africa:44.Number of National Societies reporting on gender breakdown of blood donors:121.18Source: Global Advisory Panel on Corporate Governance and Risk Management of BloodServices in Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesReD CRoss ReD CResCent RefeRenCe CentResGlobAl AdVisorypAnel (GAp)on CorporAteGoVernAnCe AndrisK MAnAGeMentoF blood serViCesin red Cross Andred CresCentsoCietiesInternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesKey services (e.g. Knowledgemanagement,Everyone Counts| Progress 2015research, technical assistance, advocacy, networking)1 Provide technical advice in terms ofcorporate governance and risk managementto National Society blood programmes2 Promote knowledge sharing, networking,and partnership among and betweenRed Cross and Red Crescent blood servicesand external partners3 Develop tools and guidelines as appropriatewithin the area of National Society bloodprogramme delivery4 Coordination of Red Cross/Red Crescentassistance to National Society blood servicesin post-emergency situationsHigHligHtsPurpose of CentreThe purpose of GAP is to provide advice to NationalSocieties and their affiliated blood services, IFRCand other related bodies in matters related to bloodservice corporate governance and risk management.GAP has developed a Self-assessment tool toassist National Society blood services to ensurethe long term stability and sustainability of theirblood service without exposure to any unnecessary risk. The Self-assessment is located On completion ofthe Self-assessment, GAP provides each bloodservice with a detailed feedback report, includinganalysis of the results, identification of areas ofconcern, and providing recommendations on riskmanagement strategies to address the identifiedrisks. GAP holds regional meetings for participantblood services to compare their performanceagainst regional benchmarks and best practices.The results of the Self-assessment are outlined,regional issues are highlighted, and specific toolsand information are provided to assist bloodservices to manage their key risks. Partneringopportunities for blood services with strongerregional counterparts are also identified.Contact information:| 9GLOBAL MAPPINGIn 2015, GAP commenced a global mapping exercise to determine the level of involvement of Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies in the provision of their national bloodprogramme. National Societies may be involved in a bloodprogramme at 3 levels - Level A (full blood service provision),B (blood donor recruitment), C (advocacy for VNRBD) or theymay have no involvement.Understanding the scale of National Society involvementin a blood programme at the global level is important asa potential risk indicator and may impact on the likelihoodof the existence of a Major Material Risk.Accurate information on all National Society Blood Services is criticalfor GAP and the IFRC to plan for future support activities and to conductSelf-assessment processes at a regional or global level.Level of involvement in Blood Program ActivityA. Full Blood Service ProvisionGovernance Advocacy for appropriate use Product distribution Component preparation Collection services/donor careDonor recruitment Promotional campaigns Education and awareness Involvement in WBDD2015 RESULTSOf the 190 surveys distributed, 57 (30%) of the190 National Societies submitted acompletedquestionnaire in the latter half of 2015.Number of responses received per zone in 2015NO.RECEIVEDNATIONALSOCIETIESIN REGIONRESPONSERATE IN 2015Africa3486%Americas143540%REGIONAsia Pacific73619%Europe & Central Asia265349%MENA71839%TOTAL5719030%Nil11B. Systematic Blood Donor RecruitmentDonor recruitment Promotional campaigns Education and awareness Involvement in WBDDC. Advocacy for VNRBDPromotional campaigns Education and awareness Involvement in WBDDThe questionnaire was developed in conjunction withthe IFRC and contained questions specifically tailoredfor particular National Societies depending on their regionand level of involvement. All National Societies were asked to provide informationon the mode of coordination of activities, funding mechanisms, donor recruitment programs (if in place) andany potential plans to expand or scale back activities. For those National Societies operating a Level Ablood service, questions were included for GAPto gain a comprehensive understanding of thescope of activity including:Number of blood collectionsInvolvement in any fractionation,transfusion or cell/tissue therapiesAccreditation The National Societies in Sierra Leone, Guineaand Liberia were asked supplementary questionsrelating to the Ebola recovery effort The survey was availablein English, French and Arabic10| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015The GAP global mapping questionnaire was distributedto National Societies in all IFRC regions (Africa, the Americas, Latin America & the Caribbean, Asia Pacific, Europe& Central Asia and Middle East & Northern Africa) in thesecond half of 2015.Global mapping results from all regionsin 2015 (total 57 National Societies)833 National context (size, population, economy,health system etc.)12213563125533 National Society Blood Programme (history, funding,statistics, accreditation, partnerships etc.)33 Regional and global summaries and visual mapping21Europe& Central Asia233 Any current changes in a National Society levelof activity in a blood programme or intentionsto expand/scale back the level of activityLevel BMiddle East& Northern AfricaThis report will include information on:33 National blood programme (providers, regulation,trends, VNRBD rate etc.)17Level CGlobal mapping results per region in 2015Once data collection is complete in late 2016, GAP willprepare a comprehensive report on all 190 NationalSocieties which will include the results of the global mappingquestionnaire, analysis and country narratives for each(obtained from both primary and secondary data sources).Level AAmericas21124Asia PacificAfricaACTIVITIES| 11SELF-ASSESSMENTOne of GAPs major ongoing projects isthe distribution and evaluation of theSelf-assessment survey for each NationalSociety Blood Service. The Self-assessmentquestionnaire assists National Societiesto ensure that appropriate steps are beingtaken to support the long term stability andsustainability of their blood service withoutexposure to unnecessary risk. NationalSociety Blood Services can measure theirprogress against a number of selectedcriteria identified as fundamental aspects ofcorporate governance and risk management.The Self-Assessment process providesindividual feedback to the blood service onrisk and governance issues including recommended strategies and suggested next stepsfor reducing exposure to current risks.GAP also provides de-identified regional reports to enable comparison of performanceand identification of common themes orchallenges within the region which are further discussed with National Society BloodServices at GAP regional meetings.SELF-ASSESSMENT FOCUSINDIAQUESTIONNAIRE REVIEWDuring 2015, the Self-assessment questionnaire was reviewed by GAP members at theAnnual General Meeting. A number of modifications were made including the additionof supplemental questions, refinements towording to improve clarity and improvementto the method of scoring the questionswhich are used to derive the overallpercentage score of the blood service.These opportunities for the improvementof the Self-assessment questionnaire wereidentified through: Feedback from GAP members andNational Society Blood Services undertaking the process in 2014/2015 GAP/IFRC discussions on Major MaterialRisk in developing countries due to lackof financial resources GAP priority country visits and third partyinformation which has identified newNational Society Blood Service risks.Above: Ms Tonks visitingthe Indian Red Cross SocietyNew Delhi National HQblood bank with DirectorDr Vanshree SinghBelow: GAP delegateswith Dr Agarwal (ICRSSecretary General)In 2013, GAP received a completed Self-assessment survey from the Indian RedCross Society (IRCS) New Delhi NationalHQ Blood Centre as part of the distributionof the Self-assessment (SA) to all Level ANational Society Blood Services in the AsiaPacific region. Following the return of the SAIndividual Feedback Report to the IRCS NewDelhi Blood Centre and during the follow-upby GAP to the responses provided in the survey, GAP became aware that there are 166independently operating IRCS blood banks inIndia across the 36 states and Union Territories. It was acknowledged therefore that theSelf-assessment responses provided by theIRCS New Delhi National HQ in 2013 represented the situation for one centre only andwas not indicative of the activities in otherRed Cross blood centres in India.As it was not feasible for GAP to distributethe SA to all 166 centres, an expanded GAPSelf-assessment process was undertakenin 2015 with the assistance of Dr VanshreeSingh (Blood Bank Director, India Red CrossSociety, New Delhi National HQ). GAP distributed the SA questionnaire to a subset of thelargest Red Cross blood centres in India.9 responses were received from:Ahmedabad (Gujarat);Voluntary Blood Bank and Blood Component Centre, Dist Panchmahal (Gujarat);Karnataka Red Cross Blood Bank;Tamil Nadu Branch;Blood Bank & Component SeparationUnit (Dadra & Nagar Haveli UT);Bombay City Branch Blood Centre(Maharashtra);Dr. Balchandra Blood Bank,Latur (Maharashtra);Blood Bank Service CentreThanjavur State Branch;Patna (Bihar).The updated version of the Self-assessmentquestionnaire will be distributed in 2016.ACTIVITIES| 13SELF-ASSESSMENT FOCUSINDIA cont.PRIORITYCOUNTRY SUPPORTAs resources permit, GAP provides targetedassistance to a small number of identifiedpriority country National Society Blood Services (NSBS). These NSBS are assessed byGAP as requiring specific support in corporate governance and risk management ofblood programmes following the completionof the Self-assessment questionnaireThis assistance may include:in-country support visitsprovision of GAP tools,resources and GAP expertiseidentifying partnering opportunities withother Blood Servicesco-ordination of technical assistancefrom GAP members or partnersIn 2015, GAPs priority countrieswere Nepal, Bangladesh, Honduras,Indonesia and Haiti.Above: Ms House discussingthe Self-assessmentresults with DirectorDrVanshreeSinghThe completed SA questionnaires werereceived from these IRCS blood centresbetween January and March 2015. The responses were analysed and individual bloodcentre Self-assessment feedback reportswere distributed to each centre with the assistance of Dr Vanshree Singh in May 2015.The reports provided a detailed analysisof the responses for each question anda summary of strengths and challengesfor the blood centre.In-country visitA GAP delegation (Ms Emily Tonks and MsOlivia House) visited India from 10th17thSeptember to validate the data provided inthe survey results from these IRCS centres.During the visit, the delegation met with keyrepresentatives of major stakeholders in thenational blood program. These included theIndian Red Cross Society (IRCS) at national,state and district level, the IRCS Blood BankNational Headquarters in New Delhi andtwo state IRCS blood centres, IFRC SouthAsia Regional Delegation office and NACO(National AIDS Control Organisation, IndianMinistry of Family Health & Welfare).Through these meetings, and together withinformation provided by the Indian Red Crosscentres in the GAP Self-assessment, GAPwas able to assess the blood service, itsoperational context, and identify a numberof areas of success and also some areasof remaining challenge.14| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015The GAP delegation visited 3 IRCS bloodcentres who had completed the SA questionnaire New Delhi National HQ, Ahmedabadand Godhra (Gujarat). The Self-assessmentresults were discussed with the blood centredirectors and representatives of the NationalSociety and a summary of the strengths andchallenges were highlighted. The delegationalso reviewed the blood centre facilities andoperations. The management and staffof the IRCS blood centres visited were highlyengaged and eager to identify any areasin which they could improve their servicesand standards.A Self-assessment sub-regional meetingwill be held in India in 2016 following thedistribution of the questionnaire to a secondsubset of IRCS blood centres. The meetingwill enable a representative of each centre tocome together to discuss the results, including country specific strengths and challenges. The meeting will also aim to enableincreased knowledge sharing and networkingon regional issues.PRIORITY COUNTRYSUPPORTNEPALGAP has a well-established association with Nepal RedCross Blood Transfusion Service through its prioritycountry support program. Since 2010 GAP has beenworking with the Nepal Red Cross Society to providespecific risk management and technical assistanceto the blood service.In December 2015, Dr Manita Rajkarnikar(Director, Nepal Red Cross Society NationalBlood Transfusion Service) commenceda 3 month training programme with theAustralian Red Cross Blood Service, providedby GAP through the 2015 GAP-IFRC Memorandum of Understanding funding for prioritycountry assistance.Dr Rajkarnikar commenced the training program in Perth, Western Australia, includingan initial introduction and orientation sessionwith the GAP secretariat. Key learningobjectives were developed by GAP for eachtraining element, to assist the delivery ofthe technical training program. The trainingschedule also included visits to AustralianRed Cross Blood Services sites in Brisbaneand Melbourne.The programme included trainingin the following key areas:Donor eligibility/selection and collection(including fixed site and mobile bloodcollection)Quality Systems (GMP requirements,external quality assurance programs,change control, corrective andpreventative measures)Donor notification andcounselling servicesTesting and processingOrder fulfilment & customer serviceVisit to a major hospital to observepre-transfusion laboratory processesand clinical use of bloodClinical transfusion practice (componentuse, transfusion guidelines, patient bloodmanagement, managing adverse events,hospital transfusion committees)Corporate and strategic planning,supply chain management andmonitoring inventoryDisaster management and contingencyMarketing and donorrecruitment strategiesFinance (cost model development)GAP received very positive feedbackfrom Dr Rajkarnikar on the training.Above: Dr Manita Rajkarnikarat the Melbourne ProcessingCentre (Australian Red CrossBlood Service)As NRCS is planning to construct new Central BloodService building and other district buildings as damagedby earth quake, this training is very fruitful to learn aboutthe system; database, new technology organizationalstructure, management and coordination with thestakeholders. Along with the training we had the chanceto work on the post EQ recovery project. I convey mysincere thanks to GAP for all support to make thistraining possible and look forward to continuedsupport and collaboration in future. I look forward toimplementing in our field whatever I have learned andgained once I return back to the home country.DR MANITA RAJKARNIKA, DIRECTORNepal Red Cross SocietyNational Blood Transfusion Service16| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015ACTIVITIES| 17PRIORITY COUNTRYSUPPORTHONDURASThe Honduran Red Cross Blood Service hasbeen a GAP priority country since 2012.The Swiss Red Cross (SRC) provides directsupport to the Honduran Red Cross bloodprogram as a dedicated bilateral project,including support for corporate governanceand risk management issues. GAP memberand Chief Executive Officer of TransfusionSwiss Red Cross provides expertise to theproject alongside the Medical Director of theHonduran Red Cross Blood Service (and GAPmember) Dr Elizabeth Vinelli.The bilateral project Strengthening of theHonduran Red Cross National Blood Program is scheduled to be completed by endof 2016. The overall objective of this projectis to assure the availability and security ofblood and blood products for all patients, bystrengthening the technical, administrativeand governance capacity of the HonduranRed Crosss National Blood Program.The expected outcomes are:1. Establishment of the National BloodPrograms own, duly constituted governance structure, with the delegation ofresponsibilities necessary to conducteffective technical and administrativemanagement.2. Creation of a unified coordinated National Blood System based on voluntary,non-remunerated blood donation.3. Strengthening the National Blood Programs technical and administrative, governance and risk management capacity.4. Strengthening voluntary blood donation.HAITI & INDONESIAIn April 2015, the General Assembly of theHonduran Red Cross approved the revisedstatutes and the new governance structuresof the organisation. In the revised statutes,the activities of the Blood Transfusion Service were included, and the mission to provide safe and sufficient blood products fromvoluntary non-remunerated blood donors isexplicitly mentioned.Further central activitiesof the project were: Capacity building for collaborators andexecutives of the Honduran Red CrossHaitiIndonesiaThe Haitian Red Cross was selected as aGAP priority country in 2010, following theHaiti earthquake. As GAP was not involved inany active support or engagement withthe National Society Blood Service since2012, the priority status of Haiti was closedin 2015. GAP will encourage the NationalSociety Blood Service to continue to complete the GAP Level A Self-assessmentquestionnaire when the questionnaire isnext distributed to the Americas, LatinAmerica & The Caribbean.The priority country status of PalangMerah Indonesia (PMI) was on hold in 2015pending completion of their bilateral supportprogramme with the Australian Red CrossBlood Service. Promotion of VNRBD in collaborationwith the local chapters of the HonduranRed Cross.In 2015 the Honduran Red Cross BloodService was accredited by the AABBAccreditation Standards for the 6th time.In 2015, GAP provided additional financialsupport to Outcome 4 of the project withthe approval of funding for an online donorrecruitment training module. This will also beadministered through the Swiss Red Crossas an adjunct activity to the existing bilateralsupport program. It is anticipated that thisonline tool will also be made available toother National Societies, with a view toassisting with the achievement of 100%VNRBD which is acknowledged as a majorchallenge in developing countries.Left: Workshop with theSupport commission ofthe National Blood Programof the Honduran Red Cross.ACTIVITIES| 19PRIORITY COUNTRYSUPPORTBANGLADESHThe Bangladesh Red Crescent Blood Service (BRCBS) wasselected for GAP priority country support in July 2014 following the completion of the GAP Self-assessment questionnaire, which identified that some corporate governance andrisk management challenges existed for the blood service.In consultation with Mr Afsar Uddin and Dr Tarique Mehedi,and taking into consideration the discussions held with various key stakeholders, recommendations for a plan for GAPand bilateral partner support for the BDRCBS, against thefollowing six areas of identified need were developed.In November 2014, a preliminary scoping visit was undertaken by GAP to assess the Blood Service, its operationalcontext and to identify areas of success and areas that wouldbenefit from support. Dr Wolfgang Mayr (GAP member andMedical Councillor for the Australian Red Cross Blood Service) provides ongoing advice and expertise to this project.1. Assistance in advocacy with governmentDuring 2015, two visits to Bangladesh were undertakenby GAP (in May and November) to meet with the BangladeshRed Crescent Society (BDRCS) Blood Service Director andother key stakeholders in order to:4. Training for technical staff, includingthe GAP Regional Training Programin Australia further understand BRCSs requirementsfor the specific areas of support requestedby the BRCS Blood Service; and progress the options for GAP or bilateral partner support.During each visit, the GAP delegation met with key staff ofboth the Bangladesh Red Crescent Society and Blood Service,including the BDRCS Director of Health and Blood, Mr AfsarUddin and the Deputy Director and In-Charge Dhaka BloodCentre, Dr Tarique Mehedi. The delegation reviewed of thestatus of the blood service and any progress since the lastvisit, reviewed current and emerging challenges, and plans forfuture development of the BDRCS blood program.Meetings were also held with representatives from theMinistry of Health and Family Welfare (Line Director ProfMd Shamiul Islam) and with the Bangladesh Red CrescentSociety Secretary General, BMM Mozharul Huq and Treasurer,Advocate Tauhidur Rahman.2. Support for an operationalisedstrategic plan3. Assistance to design and implementa quality system5. Assistance in business case developmentfor Dhaka facility improvement/rebuild6. Promotion to IFRC of the needfor VNRBD supportDuring the May visit, the GAP delegation attended a mobilevoluntary blood donor collection session held at StandardChartered Bank facilities in Dhaka and also observed theoperational processes for collection, testing, processing andtransfusion of blood at the Dhaka Blood Centre.As well as visiting two district blood centres (Chittagong andJessore), the focus of the November visit was on assistingthe BDRCS to commence development of a National Strategic Plan for the Bangladesh Red Crescent Blood Service asa key corporate governance and risk reduction strategy, andculminated in a strategic planning workshop. The workshopincluded blood service participants from Dhaka and 5 of the7 regional blood centres (Chittagong, Jessore, Sylhet, Natoreand Rajshani).The GAP delegation and BDRCSBlood Service Director: Discussed the workshop purposeas well as the roles and responsibilitiesof each centre and GAP Developed a shared understandingof the strategic planning processand a typical strategic plan format Commenced the strategic planningprocess for BDRCS, including:Scanning the current internal andexternal operating environmentWorkshopping of strengthsand challenges of each centreGoal setting for each centre Discussed the next part of the strategicplanning process Discussed and agreed on the next stepsfor development of the national strategicplan, including confirmation of strategicpriorities and development of activitiesunder each strategic priorityAbove: Ms Tonks observing operational processes at the Dhaka Blood CentreFollowing the advice provided by GAP toBDRCS during the November visit, the BloodService Director, Dr Mehedi progressed thestrategic planning activity by leading a localworkshop in December 2015 with representatives from all 8 BDRCS blood centresacross Bangladesh. The workshop wasalso attended by: the Chairman of BDRCS the Head of Delegation of IFRC, and the Line Director from the Ministryof Health and Family WelfareOne of the outcomes of the planningworkshop was a comparison of performanceand practice of each blood centre againstselected key parameters (such as %VNRBD,testing technologies used, percent components issued), with a view to identifying areasof focus for future strategy.Right: Dr Mayr reviewinglaboratory processeswith BDRCS Directorand laboratory manager,Dhaka blood centre.20| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015BDRCS continues to progress and implementtheir strategic planning at a local level.Above: Dr Mehedi (BDRCS Blood Service Director) running local workshopACTIVITIES| 21DISASTER RESPONSENEPAL EARTHQUAKEOn 25th April 2015 a devastating earthquakeof magnitude 7.9 occurred in Nepal.Inaddition to loss of lives, the earthquakecaused extensive destruction and damageto infrastructure, housing and livelihoods.Immediately following the earthquake,GAP liaised with the Director of the NepalBlood Service, Dr Manita Rajkarnikar, to provide support. The impact had resulted in significant and extensive damage to the NepalRed Cross Blood Service, both in Kathmanduand in regional and district areas. Severalblood centres were extensively damaged.The earthquake and aftershocks had intensified pre-existing vulnerabilities resulting inserious concerns that the impending monsoon season would increase both the leveland urgency of needs and the challenges forrelief and recovery.Below: Temporary bloodbank facilities in Kathmandu.The Central Blood Transfusion Service(CBTS) facility in Kathmandu, which servesas the primary coordination hub for thenational blood service, was severely damaged and was structurally unsound for use.This resulted in the CBTS being transferredto temporary and unsustainable facility arrangements in tents. Emergency blood bankinfrastructure, constructed by the British RedCross in 2014/15, helped provide mediumterm facilities support to the CBTS, whilstthey moved toward a longer term solution.GAP has a specialist role in the provisionand coordination of assistance to NationalRed Cross or Red Crescent blood servicesin post emergency situations in accordancewith GAPs Terms of Reference. This includesimmediate, short-term assistance as wellas long term support to rebuild the blood service once the initial urgency of the disasterresponse has passed. In this capacity, theNepal Red Cross Society (NRCS) SecretaryGeneral requested that GAP coordinate theNepal Blood Service reconstruction andrecovery effort following the earthquake.GAP attended the Nepal post-earthquakeplanning meeting in Kathmandu in June2015 involving senior management fromNRCS, IFRC, the International Committeeof the Red Cross (ICRC), Governmentand the United Nations. The purposeof the meeting was to: Endorse the strategic prioritiesin relation to relief, recovery andcapacity building of the NRCS; Endorse the framework forpartner support for Nepalincluding an initial mappingof needs to be addressed,objectives and targets to be met; Understand movement partnerscapacities, resources andpractical arrangementsfor working in Nepal.In August and September 2015, an expertassessment team was sent by GAP to Nepalto conduct a detailed scoping assessmentof the affected NRCS Blood Service facilities throughout the country and to developrecommendations and proposed activitiesfor the immediate and longer term supportrequirements necessary to rebuild the bloodprogram following the disaster.The team visited the CBTS in Kathmandu(as well as the Lalitpur Emergency BloodBank) and regional centres in Bhaktapur,Pokhara, Kavre, Dhading, Gorkha andNuwakot. Meetings were also held withthe Nepal Red Cross Society to reviewthe recovery proposal, which focusseson four key areas of support:22| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015NEPAL RECOVERY PROGRAMFour Key Areas of Support1234INFRASTRUCTURERebuild or repair damaged NRCS blood service facilities and infrastructure, including the establishmentof adequate temporary facilities for the CBTS. This includes the provision of building experts to assist withtechnical advice for the design of new buildings at CBTS and Kavre since these were extensively damagedin the earthquake and required replacement.EQUIPMENTProvision of critical blood service equipment to support blood service operations immediately andinto the future for eight NRCS blood service sites. The equipment includes transport vehicles, collections,processing and testing equipment as well as testing reagents and refrigerators.CAPABILITYDelivery of comprehensive technical training and support for central, regional and district staff to assistthe NRCS Blood Service to improve national capability. This includes training in collections, laboratorymethods, quality management, clinical practice, policy management/organisation and facilities technicalsupport (layout and GMP requirements).PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND LOCAL SUPPORTA dedicated GAP project manager will coordinate all aspects of the NRCS Blood Service recoveryprogram with support from local teams in Nepal. This includes the coordination of funding assistanceby Partner National Societies to ensure no duplication of activities or investment.DISASTER RESPONSENEPAL EARTHQUAKE cont.2016 Approved Budget(CHF)Actual I&E (CHF)1 Jan-31 Dec 2015(Includes Aust&SwissAccounts)Approved 2015 Budget(CHF)CHF account(CHF)AUD Converted to CHF(CHF)GAP will continue to maintain its close relationship with the NRCS, the NRCS NationalBlood Transfusion Service and the Blood Service Director, Dr Manita Rajkarnikar, to deliverthe post-earthquake recovery program andto enable the NRCS Blood Service to improveits own capacity to manage its challengesboth in the short term and to ensure its longterm sustainability.Total AUD Account(AUD)The GAP team also included a buildingexpert to assist with the design of the newbuildings including the Central Blood Transfusion Service and Kavre facilities as thesewere extensively damaged in the earthquakeand require replacement.The GAP delegates met with potentialpartner National Societies to discuss theNRCS blood program recovery requirementsand the proposed support plan. Thesediscussions subsequently resulted in severalpartner National Societies confirming theirsupport commitment to assist the bloodprogram recovery with GAPs coordination.NotesFollowing the assessment visits, and development of the recovery proposal a GAP delegation visited Kathmandu in November 2015to meet with potential partners, understandthe post-earthquake recovery environmentand seek funding commitments for the bloodprogram recovery. Meetings were held withthe Nepal Red Cross Society, IFRC, ICRC andpotential Partner National SocietiesFINANCIAL REPORTOpening balanceGAP accountsAustralian Account402,578326,987Swiss Account326,98797,97597,975IFRC Funding accountAustralian Account*94,52676,777497,104403,764America28,38021,000Australia28,502Finland27,113IsraelCombined opening balance at 1 January76,77797,975501,738514,37421,00021,00021,00021,00021,00021,00021,00021,00021,00021,00021,00027,60921,00021,00021,00021,000Japan27,16721,00021,00021,00021,000Switzerland26,50221,00021,00021,00021,000Germany26,52321,00021,00021,00021,000Austria26,16521,00021,00021,00021,000Belgium26,74221,00021,00021,00021,000Thailand27,25021,00021,00021,00021,00042,00042,000042,0000Income2015 Member ContributionsIndiaHong Kong - special status00Honduras - exempt00subtotal313,952252,000210,000252,000210,00087,86265,00065,00065,00065,00016,75215,7528,00015,7525,0001,3021,22518,05416,9768419,868333,97682015 IFRC MOU funding IncomeIncome2015 Interest IncomeInterest- GAP AustralianaccountInterest - GAP Swiss account8Interest - IFRC funding accountsubtotalAbove: Dr Manita Rajkarnikaat the temporary blood bankfacilities in Kathmandu.Right: GAP delegationin Nepal with Dr ManitaRajkarnikar.24| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015Payment from HKRC for NepalJoint Project ContributionTotal Income801,2255006,66016,9845,500281,660333,984280,500FINANCE| 252016 Approved Budget(CHF)Actual I&E (CHF)1 Jan-31 Dec 2015(Includes Aust&SwissAccounts)Approved 2015 Budget(CHF)CHF account(CHF)AUD Converted to CHF(CHF)Total AUD Account(AUD)Notes2016 Approved Budget(CHF)Actual I&E (CHF)1 Jan-31 Dec 2015(Includes Aust&SwissAccounts)Approved 2015 Budget(CHF)CHF account(CHF)AUD Converted to CHF(CHF)Total AUD Account(AUD)NotesExpenditurePriority country supportSecretariatNepalSelf Assessment costs:Salaryand oncosts@(34,595)(35,979)(458)0subtotal(35,052)(35,979)@(78,525)(81,666)Phone,rent, officesupplies,postage,stationery(2,947)0Office equipment, software, training,sundry(3,497)Online surveylicense feesSecretariat costsSecretariatsalary andoncostsSpecialist AdviceTranslation - Self assessmentreports, GAP manual, questionnairepublications/standardsProfessional expertise eg legalStakeholder meetings(e.g. IFRC, Reference Centres,WHO, ISBT)(84,968)(143,772)(135,186)(196)(184)(184)000(1,246)(1,172)(40)(37)000(120,021)(81,666)(10,000)(135,186)(1,172)(117,645)(5,000)(2,000)00(1,000)Secretariat coordination, logistics and support0Travel & accommodation(5,000)Other meeting expenses00(2,000)0(1,000)000(373)(351)(18,000)(351)(10,000)(1,953)(1,837)(10,000)(1,837)(5,000)000(30,000)(33,245)000(3,000)00(18,988)(17,854)(22,000)(17,854)(51,000)(9,107)(8,563)(37,733)(8,563)(39,242)0(10,000)(1,000)(17,637)(1,000)Travel & accommodation00(20,000)00Other expenses00(2,000)0000000000(6,000)Post disaster response Nepal(78,835)(74,127)(113,000)(74,127)(130,000)MMR followup(20,207)(19,001)(32,500)(19,001)(33,800)(4,113)(3,867)(3,867)(43,391)000(54,400)(9,461)(8,896)(8,896)(2,500)00(1,000)(1,000)(1,000)(95)(89)(24)(113)0Contingency funds000(20,000)Journal adjustment000HaitiIndonesiaTravel and accomodationGlobal mapping(new approved activity 2015-16)Website hosting and technical maintenance(7,000)(20,000)2014 IFRC Funded Activities journalled in Jan2015 (website, project support, Nepal joint GAPproject with HKRC)^0002014 HRKC Expenditure already adjusted in theopening income balance*14,22013,37013,370(340,671)(320,325)(7,186)(15,000)(7,186)(1,620)(3,800)(1,620)(2,000)Total ExpenditureGAP networking events(dinner)(1,005)(945)(2,000)(945)(2,000)Closing balanceOther expenses (annualreports)(423)(397)(1,000)(397)(1,000)Notes(9,000)00(1,200)0(2,000)Executive Board Meeting(s)Exchange rates:Opening Balance Exchange rate as per XE Currency converter website 31 Dec2014: 1 AUD = 0.8122324904 CHFWeighted average rate for report 1AUD=0.9403CHFTeleconferences(1,503)(33,245)(10,000)(7,642)(3,800)(35,357)0(1,723)(1,503)0(17,637)Travel & accommodation(1,598)00Meeting venue/cateringTeleconferencing Calls costs0(18,757)Other Expenses (online VNRBDmodule)Bank fees0Meeting venue/catering andtravel accommodation@Insurance(10,000)Annual General MeetingSupport program, travel andaccomodationStepwise accreditation (new activity for 2016)(37)0Participant costsBangladeshVietnam0Meeting costsOther expenses0Travel & accommodationRegional meetingsSupport program,travel & accommodationHondurassubtotalPostage, stationeryPost disaster support- see separate line item(2,700)Calculation of Weighted Average Rate303,349322,616 0.940300.9403CHF - OB+IncomeReceived-CBAUD - OB+Income Received-CBWeighted AvgCheck(1,024)(497,054)(321,349)(591,657)286,345514,374203,217Closing Balance Exchange rate as per Oanda websiteconversion rate - 1 AUD = 0.7243 CHF*Opening Balance in Q621 includes the adjustment of $14kHRKRC expenditure that was only reallocated to Q621 in Jan-15India membership fees for 2016 and 2017(42,000CHF) invoiced in Dec 2015, but not yet received^2014 IFRC Funded Activities relate to activities carriedout in 2014. Due to timing of costs incurred, the projectswere only finalised in early 2015.** 2016 Budget Secretariat costs converted to CHF usingthe exchange rate:AUD/CHF 0.73815 Reference: Oanda 26 May 2015@ Budget allocation for salary provided in AUD may needto be revisited if significant movement in exchange rate26| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015FINANCE| 27AUDIT REPORTHISTORYGAP was formed in 2000 by a group of expertsfrom National Society Blood Services in orderto share knowledge on risk management and toprovide advice to Red Cross/Red Crescent Societieson the proper management of risks associatedwith blood programmes.Since that time, GAPs membership has grownand GAP has continued to provide technical supportand assistance to National Society Blood Services.In June 2012, GAP was officially established as anindependent association registered under Swiss law,and governed by an Executive Board.Currently GAPs membership stands at thirteenNational Society Blood Services, all of whomconduct Level A blood programmes.28| GAP ANNUAL REPORT 2015CONTACT GAPGAP SECRETARIATA Level 1, 69 Walters Drive, Osborne Park WA 6017, AustraliaP +61 8 6213 5909F +61 8 6213 Governance, safe blood